Security In Wireless Lan Pdf Free
File Name: security in wireless lan .zip
- What Is Network Security?
- The Theory and Reality of Wireless LAN Security
- Wireless LAN
- Enterprise Mobility 8.1 Design Guide
As the name implies, this should be an excellent starting point for the subject topic, in this case Wi-Fi.
Network security is any activity designed to protect the usability and integrity of your network and data. If you're looking to increase protection for your remote employees so they can work from any device, at any time, from any location, get started with the Cisco Secure Remote Worker solution. Network security combines multiple layers of defenses at the edge and in the network. Each network security layer implements policies and controls. Authorized users gain access to network resources, but malicious actors are blocked from carrying out exploits and threats.
What Is Network Security?
A decade ago hardly anyone heard of wireless internet. Today, however, the IT technology is mostly based on the wireless connection followed by the development of wireless network-enabled devices Cache and Liu, The manufacturers of the speed network equipment generate billions of pounds, yet a worldwide usage carries a number of risks costing their business staggering amount of money and resources. The wireless signal of the WLAN is broadcast through the air in all directions simultaneously.
An unauthorized user can easily capture this signal using freeware tools to exploit WLAN vulnerability. WLANs are increasingly used within home and business environment due to the convenience, mobility, and affordable prices for wireless devices. WLAN gives mobility and flexibility to users in homes and hot spot environments, such as airports and campuses.
The wide range of usage emphasises the importance of having a secure network and protect from potential break ins. This allows the transmitted data within the network to be encrypted.
Nevertheless, the fact that information is said to be encrypted, does not necessarily mean the hacking specialists can access it Cache and Liu, Wireless LAN networks are generally designed with emphasis on convenience rather than security.
This is exactly where the problem lies. On a wireless network almost anyone with a WLAN enabled device can easily connect to and penetrate other users systems Misic, , thus research based and findings will illustrate just how easy it is to protect from malicious attacks by simply using a combination of strong encryption protocol and complex key.
The author discusses the potential consequences that arise from using a weak encryption. In order to explore further the findings and results of this study a wardriving test has been conducted to critically assess the issues associated with security and to examine its current level. This paperlooks at the security tools available for WLANs and their practicality in order to increase security awareness. It is demonstrated how to gain unauthorised access to anaverage wireless network that is using out dated security protocols like WEP.
However, the main focus is on the potential risks whenusing wireless networks and ways to provide an appropriate security. To analyse aspects of wireless LAN security and to demonstrate the effects of potential attacks on secured networks.
In this chapter, popular WLAN technologies and problems relevant to the research area are introduced. There are different types of During further developments of However, they do not all succeed at these tasks and introduce vulnerabilities into the WLANs. The first protection used in It was not the standard but, at the time, it provided a temporary solution to wireless security.
Throughout this time, institutions used VPNs as an alternative security solution to secure their wireless networks Dowt, In result WLAN security developed into a mature and secure solution and its reputation was restored Kizza, WEP is the original security mechanism of the As the name Wired Equivalent suggests, its intention has never been to make WLAN a per cent secure, but to provide the same security as in a wired network.
WEP was built for the encryption of the network traffic, the data integrity and station authentication. These 3 core elements attempt to satisfy the security objectives Authenticity, Integrity and Confidentiality Howard and Prince, However,Borisov et al has proved that vulnerabilities exist for each of them; therefore none of the security objectives can be reached.
Despite these issues, WEP is still widely deployed, thus it is necessary to explore further its vulnerabilities. Leading research of the insecurity of WEP was done by Walker who concluded that the WEP was unsafe at any key size and that it could not meet its design goal which was to provide data privacy to the level of a wired network.
Borisov et al presented the first serious paper on WEP insecurity receivinga high volume of controversy in the press. The FMS attack was only theoretical, yet it did not take long till it got adapted into the real world. However, these tests where purely experimental and no easy-to-use tools were available to the public at the time. Yet, this soon changed when an open source tool called AirSnort was released for Linux, allowing anyone with a computer and networking knowledge to hack into a Wireless LAN AirSnort, Unfortunately, the issue with solutions discussed above is that they are vendor specific and incompatible with each other.
The attack, he described, was no longer dependent on weak IV. According to Beaver and McClure process of authentication is used to verify that a valid user is trying to connect to the network. In WEP thereare two approaches to do this: open system authentication and shared key authentication. Open Authentication is not really any authentication at all, because when a station wants to authenticate, the AP always accepts the request and allows a station to join the network.
This is a device-based authentication scheme asthe user does not need to provide a valid user ID or password. Instead, the MAC address of the connecting node is used to identify it. Borisov in his early research highlights the possibilityto configure the MAC addresses of the permitted clients with their access points. However, this approach does not provide the desired security as it is easy to spoof an address. Shared key Authentication uses fourmessages Figure When a station requests Authentication the AP sends a challenge-text in the form of a 40 or bit number.
The Station encrypts this text with the WEP secret key, sends it back to the AP which decrypts the text, checks if it is the correct one and then grants access to the network. This process only authenticates the station to the access point, not the other way around; therefore a malicious AP can simply pretend that the authentication was successful without knowing the secret key Gast, WEP uses the RC4 algorithm to encrypt data messages.
This algorithm uses a stream cipher meaning that every byte is encrypted individually with the WEP key. The decryption is the reverse of this process and uses the same key Fluhrer et al, Usually the cipher key has bit and consist of 24 bit initialisation vector IV and bit key.
An IV is used to produce a single key-stream for each frame transmitted. The unique key is sent in plain text with the packet, therefore can be viewed by a packet sniffer Lockhart, This is a major flaw of WEP encryption. As said by Flickenger the fact that the same key is used for all frames transmitted in the WLAN network it makes penetration test much easier. WEP still provides basic security and it is integrated in most of the routers.
A recent survey conducted for the purpose of this project on the Wireless security illustrates that an estimated third of the Access Points have WEP encryption enabled Chapter 3. Due to those weaknesses, WPA introduced some improvements. The final IEEE However, does not include most of the flaws of the previous system. The work on the WPA started immediately after the first reports of violation of the WEP and later on was deployed worldwide Lowe, Based on similar thesis Takahashi developed a tool called WPAcrack, a proof of concept which allows a brute force offline dictionary attack against the WPA.
Author further concluded that the recommendation of the Wi-Fi alliance to use passwords longer than twenty characters would most likely not be executed in practice by the users of the WPA. Unfortunately, many people do not pay much attentionto establishing long passwords and the consequences it may have in the future.
Before this attack, the only other known methods involved a dictionary attack against a weakly chosen pre-shared key. It's going to last for the next 20 years. This new algorithm requires a separate chip for the encryption and therefore new hardware is needed Misic, Furthermore, Kizza noted that using the WPA2 protocol itdoes not guarantee protection against attacks such as: frequency jamming, Denial of Service or de-authentication and de-association attacks.
WPA includes two types of user authentication. Instead of using a pre-shared key, which creates a keystream, WPA uses a pre-shared key to serve as the seed for generating the encryption keys Lammle, Pre-shared key authentication isintended for personal and small office use where an authentication server is unavailable Lammle, It is significant to make the secret passphrase as long and as casualas possible at least 20 characters long with a mix of various random characters numbers, uppercases etc.
Lockhart, If the WPA is appropriately implemented and sufficiently managed, it will be a very strong security and highly difficult task ofbreaking; especially with the implementation of the AES-CCMP, whichis the most secure wireless network configuration in use today.
Itmustbe shared by an Access point in order to authenticate clients to the network. However, in order to operate the network, the Access Points need to answer clients with the correct SSID and this type of transmitted trafficallows possible attackers to sniff it Lockhart, This mechanism therefore can only help to fulfil authentication in WLANs. Every network card is identified by its unique MAC address.
This mechanism could provide Authenticity, however MAC addresses are not as fixed as they apprear to be. He then can change it and access the network. This process is known as MAC spoofing. MAC Filtering should be used only as a small part of the security strategy. Once the flaws of the WEP were examined by Walker and first attacks were launched by Fluhrer et al.
VPN with IPsec solution can protect users from the attacks that directly influence the confidentiality of application data but cannot prevent attacks that indirectly ruin confidentiality. Man in the middle, high-jacking and replay attacks are the best examples of these types of attacks.
However, the SSL is thought to be a better solution to be used with remote users to connect to private networks as the performance limitation is minimal Coleman, Many of the wireless attack tools are developed to compromise WLAN networks.
The popularity and widespread use of WLAN gives the attacker a platform in which they can cause the most trouble. As other technologies gain popularity and practicality, the more attack tools are developed for those technologies. Passive attacks are used to collect information like the network SSID, the type of authentication and the type of encryption.
Active attacks are used to launch an attack against the wireless network. In these attacks, an unauthorized user acquires access to the network data sources.
There is no adjustment of message content, but it is possible to spy on the transmission. It can identify the Service Set Identifier SSID , determine the encryption used, and even determine the manufacturer of the access point. This information is further used by tools such as Airodump-ng to capture required data.
The Theory and Reality of Wireless LAN Security
A decade ago hardly anyone heard of wireless internet. Today, however, the IT technology is mostly based on the wireless connection followed by the development of wireless network-enabled devices Cache and Liu, The manufacturers of the speed network equipment generate billions of pounds, yet a worldwide usage carries a number of risks costing their business staggering amount of money and resources. The wireless signal of the WLAN is broadcast through the air in all directions simultaneously. An unauthorized user can easily capture this signal using freeware tools to exploit WLAN vulnerability.
The Cisco Unified Wireless Network solution provides end-to-end security of architecture and product security features to protect wireless local area network WLAN endpoints, the WLAN infrastructure, and client communications. Figure illustrates a secure wireless topology. The topology is made up of the following components with their basic roles in the Figure Secure Wireless Topology. Security is implemented using authentication and encryption in the WLAN network.
A wireless LAN WLAN is a wireless computer network that links two or more devices using wireless communication to form a local area network LAN within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, campus, or office building. This gives users the ability to move around within the area and remain connected to the network. Wireless LANs have become popular for use in the home, due to their ease of installation and use. They are also popular in commercial properties that offer wireless access to their employees and customers.
Enterprise Mobility 8.1 Design Guide
Our world is facing an acceleration in the frequency, diversity, and impact of disruptions. Planning your network to help your organization respond to the unexpected is now more important than ever. With more devices connecting to your network, you need solutions that offer security, speed, and reliability. Our wireless solutions—which include Cisco DNA Center, Wi-Fi 6 access points, and wireless controllers—can help meet today's business demands and user expectations. Get reliable connectivity through IoT device classification, segmentation, visibility, and management. Enhance business agility and zero-trust security by automating one policy across the entire access network. View all wireless products.
Wireless local area networks WLANs based on the Wi-Fi wireless fidelity standards are one of today's fastest growing technologies in businesses, schools, and homes, for good reasons. They provide mobile access to the Internet and to enterprise networks so users can remain connected away from their desks. These networks can be up and running quickly when there is no available wired Ethernet infrastructure. They can be made to work with a minimum of effort without relying on specialized corporate installers.
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