Governing States And Localities Pdf
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- Governing States and Localities: The Essentials
- PDF | Governing States and Localities (7th Edition)
- Governing States and Localities: The Essentials
- Governing States And Localities 7th Edition PDF free download
Updated: Mar 15, Happy you. Governing States and Localities - 6th edition.. Read or listen to the world's best nonfiction books in a matter of minutes and.. Kevin B.
Governing States and Localities: The Essentials
As state and local governments pursue projects to address climate change—such as building wind farms and solar fields, installing electric vehicle infrastructure, and improving building efficiency—they should use their powers in a way that delivers value for taxpayers and benefits working people. The need to address climate change is clear and urgent, as record heat, severe flooding, and smoke-filled skies continually remind.
So, too, is the need to create high-quality jobs: Wages for most workers have been stagnant for decades, 1 and the COVID pandemic has exacerbated long-standing problems in the economy. Reaching a clean energy future will transform major sectors and spur new employment opportunities. In , the clean energy economy employed more than 3.
State and local governments can have an enormously powerful effect on labor conditions not only when they pass laws setting labor standards that are higher than federal standards but also when they purchase goods and services or promote projects such as through the use of tax incentives and loan guarantees. Five key measures that state and local governments should apply to all climate-related work financed through contracts, grants, loans, or tax incentives, or work that is subject to government permitting, include the following:.
Employers often engage in sophisticated campaigns 4 to prevent workers from forming unions such as by forcing workers to attend anti-union meetings—including one-on-one conversations with supervisors—and pressuring workers to reveal their private preferences for the union. These kinds of actions frequently lead to labor disputes, delays, and disruptions that reduce the quality 5 or timely delivery of goods and services.
State and local governments can, as market participants, take steps to help limit labor disputes and ensure that their spending leads to the timely delivery of quality goods and services. To help prevent labor disputes, state and local governments may require labor peace agreements on certain projects when there is a risk of labor disruption.
These contracts between companies and unions prohibit strikes, work stoppages, and lockouts, and they often ensure that companies remain neutral during union-organizing drives. On some large building projects—for example, new construction or restoration of bridges, tunnels, and buildings—governmental bodies can require contractors to use project labor agreements PLAs 7 and community workforce agreements CWAs.
Unlike a collective bargaining agreement, a PLA is project-specific, covers all the crafts that will work on the project, and is in effect only for the duration of the contract. Many PLAs also include provisions for hiring a portion of the workforce from targeted communities and, when they do so, are sometimes known as CWAs. The community workforce provisions provide a mechanism for disadvantaged groups to gain access to skills development and high-paying jobs, particularly when these provisions are paired with apprenticeship training opportunities.
For example, the agreement covering construction of the bridge that replaced the old Tappan Zee Bridge spanning the Hudson River took strong steps to promote local jobs for the diverse community.
The agreement required that. PLAs and CWAs provide significant advantages to governmental bodies as they substantially reduce job interruptions that are occasioned by jurisdictional disputes or labor stoppages due to strikes and set terms and conditions of employment that are predictable and applicable over the full term of the construction project. Generally, unions and construction managers agree that wages will be increased in accordance with increases in area master contracts.
Unions also like these agreements because they can support union membership and maintenance of appropriate wage and benefit standards throughout the project. Several states have moved to include PLAs in their climate proposals. Prevailing wage laws require that companies working on government-funded projects pay wages and benefits that at least match compensation levels prevailing in the industry and region.
This ensures that government spending does not drive down market wages and helps to standardize wages across an industry. In industries with a significant number of high-road, unionized firms, prevailing wage laws support higher compensation standards than typical minimum-wage laws and prevent these standards from being undercut.
Prevailing wage laws also lead to high-quality work at little to no additional cost to taxpayers. Advocates for good jobs can press state and municipal governments to initiate or expand prevailing wage law requirements. For example, a bill in Connecticut requires that developers bidding on up to 2, megawatts of offshore wind projects commit to paying their workers prevailing wages.
A number of local governments, including New York City and Jersey City, New Jersey, have adopted prevailing wage laws that apply to government service contracts, and this concept should be applied to climate service jobs such as operations for green buildings.
In developing these laws, policymakers should ensure that the prevailing wage is determined in a manner that recognizes the value of collective bargaining in setting high standards, as a number of governments already do for at least some forms of spending.
Several states explicitly use collectively bargained rates, without regard for a set coverage threshold, to determine prevailing wages for public works projects. Several states, including New York and California, allow wage boards for a variety of sectors.
Advocates should encourage organizations to reach out to workers and engage them in board activities. These elements can help build union strength and potentially lead to more direct bargaining.
The task in these areas is to create the grassroots campaign that will push public officials to enact the appropriate law. Government-registered apprenticeship training programs are a proven training model that combines structured classroom instruction with paid on-the-job training.
Apprenticeship training can lead to high-paying jobs and create opportunities for career advancement. Employers in the building and construction industry, working with unions, have long used registered apprenticeship training programs to provide a steady pipeline of highly qualified workers who meet federal and state standards for safety and training.
Doing so helps ensure quality production on government projects now and in the future. To expand the scope of high-quality apprenticeship and other joint labor-management training programs as well as to ensure that these efforts increase access to training for Blacks, Hispanics, women, and other historically disadvantaged communities, 28 lawmakers can take several steps. First, they can require that 15 percent or more of labor hours on large-scale infrastructure projects be performed by apprentices participating in programs that meet federal and state registered apprenticeship standards, as, for example, Washington state and Alaska have done for projects across the state.
In addition, lawmakers can require these projects to adopt a targeted-hire initiative that establishes mandatory hiring requirements and partners with local community groups to ensure that affected groups—such as local residents, women, people of color, workers with disabilities, and other disadvantaged groups—are able to access these jobs, similar to the policies adopted by San Francisco and the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority.
In industries and regions with few established registered apprenticeship training programs or where established apprenticeship programs have little capacity to fulfill demands for training, policymakers should provide funding to labor-management intermediaries to develop apprenticeship programs or paid work-based learning programs and to ensure that training funds do not go to low-quality programs that do not involve unions.
Unfortunately, government contractors frequently violate standards such as prevailing wage laws 33 and more general workplace standards 34 such as minimum wage, overtime, and sick leave. In addition, more stringent requirements in the processes governing bidding for government contracts could engender more compliance.
One recent approach that seems to have great potential for securing compliance with wage laws is co-enforcement. Traditionally, legislatures have left to governmental bodies the full burden of investigating whether companies have complied with the law and taking measures to enforce compliance.
Even if they were adequately funded, however, these agencies could not reach all worksites, and they can struggle to build trust with workers. Co-enforcement involves several components: a formal role for worker organizations educating workers about their rights and helping government inspectors, providing these organizations with workplace access, and funding for their efforts. In one of the oldest co-enforcement programs, the Los Angeles Unified School District and other city agencies partner with trade unions to train volunteers to enforce the prevailing wage laws on district projects.
The district authorizes these volunteers to conduct site visits and interview workers about compliance as well as help with audits, hearings, and review conferences. By relying on the five proven strategies outlined above, state and local governments can ensure their efforts to address climate change benefit workers, high-road employers, and taxpayers.
Though governments throughout the country have successfully adopted these strategies, good-job advocates may want help as they pursue them in their locality.
Supporters of good jobs will want to ensure, for example, that the policies are drafted to withstand common legal challenges and are supported by the best research. The Climate Jobs National Resource Center and Center for American Progress can help advise advocates on best practices and can provide examples of agreements, ordinances, and related documents that have proven valuable to advocates for workers.
David Madland is a senior fellow at the Center for American Progress. Download the PDF here.
PDF | Governing States and Localities (7th Edition)
Search this site. Smith Synopsis: The partisan and ideological polarization associated with federal government plagues states and localities too, bringing with it significant implications for public policy and intergovernmental relations. The trusted and proven Governing States and Localities guides students through these issues and continues its focus on the role economic and budget pressures play. With their engaging journalistic writing and crisp storytelling, Kevin B. Smith and Alan Greenblatt employ a comparative approach to explain how and why states and localities are both similar and different in institutional structure, culture, history, economy, geography, and demographics.
As state and local governments pursue projects to address climate change—such as building wind farms and solar fields, installing electric vehicle infrastructure, and improving building efficiency—they should use their powers in a way that delivers value for taxpayers and benefits working people. The need to address climate change is clear and urgent, as record heat, severe flooding, and smoke-filled skies continually remind. So, too, is the need to create high-quality jobs: Wages for most workers have been stagnant for decades, 1 and the COVID pandemic has exacerbated long-standing problems in the economy. Reaching a clean energy future will transform major sectors and spur new employment opportunities. In , the clean energy economy employed more than 3. State and local governments can have an enormously powerful effect on labor conditions not only when they pass laws setting labor standards that are higher than federal standards but also when they purchase goods and services or promote projects such as through the use of tax incentives and loan guarantees.
Governing States and Localities [Smith, Kevin B., Greenblatt, Alan H.] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Governing States and Localities.
Governing States and Localities: The Essentials
E-raamatut saab lugeda ning alla laadida kuni 6'de seadmesse. E-raamatut ei saa konverteerida teise formaati ega lugeda Amazon Kindle's. The trusted and proven Governing States and Localities guides you through the contentious environment of state and local politics and focuses on the role that economic and budget pressures play on issues facing state and local governments. With their engaging journalistic writing and crisp storytelling, Kevin B. Smith and Alan Greenblatt employ a comparative approach to explain how and why states and localities are both similar and different.
Download PDF Version. Immigration law is often thought of as a federal issue, and indeed the federal government has exclusive power over who enters the country and on what terms they can remain. But the day-to-day life of noncitizens is regulated both by the federal government and by its state and local counterparts. Recent proposals by the Trump administration would significantly increase the number of noncitizens and their children who become deportable because they use public benefits. Meanwhile, few people understand exactly what benefits noncitizens can receive.
Governing States And Localities 6th Edition pdf free download is a very intriguing book that anyone will find very interesting. So if you need this book together with some of the best ebooks available online to students and other professionals, you can utilize the information below. Despite reports of the recession nearing an end, states will have to struggle to make ends meet well into the foreseeable future. The choices are sometimes stark: trade-offs between roads and schools, public safety and health care.
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Governing States And Localities 7th Edition PDF free download
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Chapter 1: Introduction to State and Local Government: They Tax Dogs in West Virginia, Don't They? Governing States and Localities: The Essentials.
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