ip addressing and subnetting pdf in hindi

Ip Addressing And Subnetting Pdf In Hindi

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Welcome to the world of networking.

CCNA Tutorial: Learn Networking Basics

We have compiled the most frequently asked Networking Interview Questions and Answers that will help you to prepare for the Networking basics interview questions that an interviewer might ask you during your interview. In this list of Networking interview questions, we have covered all commonly asked basic and advanced interview questions on networking with detailed answers to help you clear the job interview. This detailed guide of Network Engineer interview questions will help you to crack your Job interview easily.

A link refers to the connectivity between two devices. It includes the type of cables and protocols used for one device to be able to communicate with the other.

A backbone network is a centralized infrastructure that is designed to distribute different routes and data to various networks. It also handles the management of bandwidth and multiple channels.

It refers to the connection between computers and other network devices that are located within a small physical location. A node refers to a point or joint where a connection takes place. It can be a computer or device that is part of a network. Two or more nodes are needed to form a network connection.

Router Routers can connect two or more network segments. These are intelligent network devices that store information in its routing tables, such as paths, hops, and bottlenecks. With this info, they can determine the best path for data transfer.

It refers to a direct connection between two computers on a network. A point to point connection does not need any other network devices other than connecting a cable to the NIC cards of both computers. Anonymous FTP is a way of granting user access to files in public servers. Users that are allowed access to data in these servers do not need to identify themselves, but instead, log in as an anonymous guest.

A subnet mask is combined with an IP address to identify two parts: the extended network address and the host address. Like an IP address, a subnet mask is made up of 32 bits. A single segment of UTP cable has an allowable length of 90 to meters. This limitation can be overcome by using repeaters and switches. Data encapsulation is the process of breaking down information into smaller, manageable chunks before it is transmitted across the network.

In this process that the source and destination addresses are attached to the headers, along with parity checks. It shows how devices and cables are physically laid out, as well as how they connect.

VPN means Virtual Private Network, a technology that allows a secure tunnel to be created across a network such as the Internet.

For example, VPNs allow you to establish a secure dial-up connection to a remote server. This is a protocol that provides a way for multiple computers on a common network to share a single connection to the Internet.

The Network layer is responsible for data routing, packet switching, and control of network congestion. Routers operate under this layer. Network topology dictates what media you must use to interconnect devices. It also serves as a basis on what materials, connectors, and terminations that is applicable for the setup. RIP, short for Routing Information Protocol is used by routers to send data from one network to another.

It efficiently manages routing data by broadcasting its routing table to all other routers within the network. It determines the network distance in units of hops. There are several ways to do this. Install a reliable and updated anti-virus program on all computers. Make sure firewalls are setup and configured correctly. User authentication will also help a lot. All these combined would make a highly secured network. This is a peripheral card that is attached to a PC in order to connect to a network.

It is an interconnection of computers and devices that are geographically dispersed. It connects networks that are located in different regions and countries. The physical layer does the conversion from data bits to the electrical signal, and vice versa.

This is where network devices and cable types are considered and setup. Proxy servers primarily prevent external users who are identifying the IP addresses of an internal network. Without knowledge of the correct IP address, even the physical location of the network cannot be identified.

Proxy servers can make a network virtually invisible to external users. This layer provides the protocols and means for two devices on the network to communicate with each other by holding a session. This includes setting up the session, managing information exchange during the session, and tear-down process upon termination of the session.

A fault tolerance system ensures continuous data availability. This is done by eliminating a single point of failure. The 10 refers to the data transfer rate. In this case, it is 10Mbps. The word Base refers to baseband, as opposed to broadband. Private IP addresses are assigned for use on intranets. These addresses are used for internal networks and are not routable on external public networks. These ensure that no conflicts are present among internal networks.

At the same time, the same range of private IP addresses is reusable for multiple intranets since they do not "see" each other. The main task of this software is to provide network connectivity to a computer in order to communicate with other computers and connected devices.

DoS, or Denial-of-Service attack, is an attempt to prevent users from being able to access the Internet or any other network services. Such attacks may come in different forms and are done by a group of perpetrators. One common method of doing this is to overload the system server so it cannot anymore process legitimate traffic and will be forced to reset.

It is made up of 7 layers, with each layer defining a particular aspect of how network devices connect and communicate with one another. One layer may deal with the physical media used, while another layer dictates how data is transmitted across the network. The primary purpose of this is to prevent crosstalk. Crosstalk's are electromagnetic interferences or noise that can affect data being transmitted across cables. By using address translation instead of routing, address sharing provides an inherent security benefit.

That's because host PCs on the Internet can only see the public IP address of the external interface on the computer. Instead, it provides address translation and not the private IP addresses on the internal network. It is also known as a physical address or an Ethernet address. A MAC address is made up of 6-byte parts. If the first octet begins with a 0 bit, that address is Class A.

If it begins with bits 10 then that address is a Class B address. If it begins with , then it's a Class C network. OSPF, or Open Shortest Path First, is a link-state routing protocol that uses routing tables to determine the best possible path for data exchange.

Firewalls serve to protect an internal network from external attacks. These external threats can be hackers who want to steal data or computer viruses that can wipe out data in an instant. It also prevents other users from external networks from gaining access to the private network.

This is one of the easiest to set up and maintain. Only those nodes are affected, that has failed. Other nodes still work. Fast performance with few nodes and very low network traffic. In Star topology, addition, deletion, and moving of the devices are easy. The cost of installation of star topology is costly. Heavy network traffic can sometimes slow the bus considerably.

Performance depends on the Hub's capacity A damaged cable or lack of proper termination may bring the network down. Gateways provide connectivity between two or more network segments. It is usually a computer that runs the gateway software and provides translation services. This translation is key in allowing different systems to communicate on the network.

One major disadvantage of star topology is that once the central Hub or switch gets damaged, the entire network becomes unusable. This is one of the protocols that are used for remote access. Tracert is a Windows utility program that can use to trace the route taken by data from the router to the destination network. It also shows the number of hops taken during the entire transmission route. Accessing the resources that are shared by one of the workstations on the network takes a performance hit.

A hybrid network is a network setup that makes use of both client-server and peer-to-peer architecture. Its main task is to assign an IP address to devices across the network automatically. It first checks for the next available address not yet taken by any device, then assigns this to a network device.

This is a set of protocol layers that is designed to make data exchange possible on different types of computer networks, also known as a heterogeneous network.

Networking Course {Beginner to Advance} in Hindi

Orders delivered to U. Learn more. An addressing scheme is clearly a requirement for communications in a computer network. With an addressing scheme, packets are forwarded from one location to another. In this figure, host 1 communicates with host 2 through a network of seven nodes, R1 through R7, and a payload of data encapsulated in a frame by the link layer header, the network layer header, and the transport layer header is carried over a link.


Address. Borrow 3 bits. S S S H H H H H. # of subnets = 23 = 8. Subnet mask = 3 bits = + 64 + 32 = Range of hosts = 25 = Range. Useable Range.


Subnet Mask

If a host on a network has the address Using the following illustration, what would be the IP address of E0 if you were using the eighth subnet? The network ID is The zero subnet should not be considered valid for this question. Which configuration command must be in effect to allow the use of 8 subnets if the Class C subnet mask is

ED Jobs M. Com Jobs B.

IP address is an address having information about how to reach a specific host, especially outside the LAN. An IP address is a 32 bit unique address having an address space of 2 Generally, there are two notations in which IP address is written, dotted decimal notation and hexadecimal notation.

It is valid for all types of engineers including entry-level network engineers, network administrators, network support engineers and network specialists. It helps to become familiar with broad range of networking concepts like OSI models, IP addressing, Network security, etc. It is estimated that more than 1 million CCNA certificates have been awarded since it was first launched in It helps candidates to study CCNA fundamentals and prepare for the latest network technologies they are likely to work on.

An Internet Protocol address IP address is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. IP addresses are written and displayed in human-readable notations, such as The size of the routing prefix of the address is designated in CIDR notation by suffixing the address with the number of significant bits , e.

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