Nanomaterials Properties And Applications Pdf
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- What is a Nanomaterial? - Definition, Examples and Uses
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- Review on nanoparticles and nanostructured materials: history, sources, toxicity and regulations
What is a Nanomaterial? - Definition, Examples and Uses
Nanomaterials NMs have gained prominence in technological advancements due to their tunable physical, chemical and biological properties with enhanced performance over their bulk counterparts. NMs are categorized depending on their size, composition, shape, and origin. The ability to predict the unique properties of NMs increases the value of each classification.
Due to increased growth of production of NMs and their industrial applications, issues relating to toxicity are inevitable. The aim of this review is to compare synthetic engineered and naturally occurring nanoparticles NPs and nanostructured materials NSMs to identify their nanoscale properties and to define the specific knowledge gaps related to the risk assessment of NPs and NSMs in the environment.
The review presents an overview of the history and classifications of NMs and gives an overview of the various sources of NPs and NSMs, from natural to synthetic, and their toxic effects towards mammalian cells and tissue. Additionally, the types of toxic reactions associated with NPs and NSMs and the regulations implemented by different countries to reduce the associated risks are also discussed.
Nanoparticles NPs and nanostructured materials NSMs represent an active area of research and a techno-economic sector with full expansion in many application domains. NPs and NSMs have gained prominence in technological advancements due to their tunable physicochemical characteristics such as melting point, wettability, electrical and thermal conductivity, catalytic activity, light absorption and scattering resulting in enhanced performance over their bulk counterparts.
In principle, NMs are described as materials with length of 1— nm in at least one dimension; however, they are commonly defined to be of diameter in the range of 1 to nm. However, a single internationally accepted definition for NMs does not exist. Different organizations have a difference in opinion in defining NMs [ 1 ]. Nanofibers, nanoplates, nanowires, quantum dots and other related terms have been defined based on this ISO definition [ 5 ].
Recently, the British Standards Institution [ 7 ] proposed the following definitions for the scientific terms that have been used:. Nanoscience: The science and study of matter at the nanoscale that deals with understanding their size and structure-dependent properties and compares the emergence of individual atoms or molecules or bulk material related differences.
Nanotechnology: Manipulation and control of matter on the nanoscale dimension by using scientific knowledge of various industrial and biomedical applications. Nanomaterial: Material with any internal or external structures on the nanoscale dimension. Nanoparticle: Nano-object with three external nanoscale dimensions. The terms nanorod or nanoplate are employed, instead of nanoparticle NP when the longest and the shortest axes lengths of a nano-object are different. Nanofiber: When two similar exterior nanoscale dimensions and a third larger dimension are present in a nanomaterial, it is referred to as nanofiber.
Nanocomposite: Multiphase structure with at least one phase on the nanoscale dimension. Nanostructure: Composition of interconnected constituent parts in the nanoscale region. The use of various definitions across different jurisdictions acts as a major hurdle to regulatory efforts as it leads to legal hesitation in applying regulatory approaches for identical NMs.
Therefore, the need to satisfy diverging considerations is a major challenge in developing a single international definition for NMs. Most current NPs and NSMs can be organized into four material-based categories the references refer to recent reviews on these different categories of NMs. Fullerenes C60 , carbon nanotubes CNTs , carbon nanofibers, carbon black, graphene Gr , and carbon onions are included under the carbon-based NMs category.
Laser ablation, arc discharge, and chemical vapor deposition CVD are the important production methods for these carbon-based materials fabrication except carbon black [ 8 ]. The utilization of noncovalent weak interactions for the self-assembly and design of molecules helps to transform the organic NMs into desired structures such as dendrimers, micelles, liposomes and polymer NPs. The composites may be any combinations of carbon-based, metal-based, or organic-based NMs with any form of metal, ceramic, or polymer bulk materials.
NMs are synthesized in different morphologies as mentioned in Figure 1 depending on the required properties for the desired application. The production of conventional products at the nanoscale currently helps and will continue to will help the economic progress of numerous countries. Many types of NPs and NSMs have been reported and many other varieties are predicted to appear in the future. Therefore, the need for their classification has ripened. The first idea for NM classification was given by Gleiter et al.
Here, NMs were classified depending on their crystalline forms and chemical composition. However, the Gleiter scheme was not fully complete because the dimensionality of the NPs and NSMs was not considered [ 17 ]. This classification is highly dependent on the electron movement along the dimensions in the NMs.
For example, electrons in 0D NMs are entrapped in a dimensionless space whereas as 1D NMs have electrons that can move along the x -axis, which is less than nm.
Likewise, 2D and 3D NMs have electron movement along the x — y -axis, and x , y , z -axis respectively. The ability to predict the properties of NMs determines the classification value of the NMs. Therefore, the classical inner size effects, such as melting point reduction and diffusion enhancement, will be enhanced by grain boundary engineering. Thus, these reasons focus on the engineering of particle shape and dimensionality along with grain boundary engineering to extend the application of NSMs [ 18 ].
Apart from dimension and material-based classifications, NPs and NSMs can also be classified as natural or synthetic, based on their origin. The production of artificial surfaces with exclusive micro and nanoscale templates and properties for technological applications are readily available from natural sources. The question of risk assessment strategies has arisen in recent times as there is increased fabrication and subsequent release of engineered NMs as well as their usage in consumer products and industrial applications.
These risk assessment strategies are highly helpful in forecasting the behavior and fate of engineered NMs in various environmental media. The major challenge among engineered NMs is whether existing knowledge is enough to forecast their behavior or if they exhibit a distinct environment related behavior, different from natural NMs. Currently, different sources related to potential applications are used for the production of engineered NMs [ 21 ]. Humans already exploited the reinforcement of ceramic matrixes by including natural asbestos nanofibers more than 4, years ago [ 22 ].
In ancient geographical regions of the Roman Empire, including countries such as Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Greece, the extensive use of Egyptian blue for decorative purposes has been observed during archaeological explorations. The synthesis of metallic NPs via chemical methods dates back to the 14th and 13th century BC when Egyptians and Mesopotamians started making glass using metals, which can be cited as the beginning of the metallic nanoparticle era [ 25 ].
These materials may be the earliest examples of synthetic NMs in a practical application. Nevertheless, a Roman glass workpiece is the most famous example of ancient metallic NPs usage. The Lycurgus Cups are a 4th-century Roman glass cup, made of a dichroic glass that displays different colors: red when a light passes from behind, and green when a light passes from the front [ 28 ].
Later, red and yellow colored stained glass found in medieval period churches was produced by incorporating colloidal Au and Ag NPs, respectively [ 25 ]. During the 9th century, Mesopotamians started using glazed ceramics for metallic luster decorations [ 22 ].
These decorations are an example of metal nanoparticles that display iridescent bright green and blue colors under particular reflection conditions. TEM analysis of these ceramics revealed a double layer of Ag NPs 5—10 nm in the outer layer and larger ones 5—20 nm in the inner layer. The distance was observed to be constant at about nm in between two layers, giving rise to interference effects.
The scattered light from the second layer leads to the phase shift due to the scattering of light by the first layer. This incoming light wavelength dependent phase shift leads to a different wavelength while scattering. Later, the red glass was manufactured using this process all over the world.
In the midth century, a similar technique was used to produce the famous Satsuma glass in Japan. The absorption properties of Cu NPs were helpful in brightening the Satsuma glass with ruby color [ 30 ]. Furthermore, clay minerals with a thickness of a few nanometers are the best examples of natural NM usage since antiquity. It was reported that even in BC, clay was used to bleach wools and clothes in Cyprus [ 31 ]. In , Michael Faraday reported the synthesis of a colloidal Au NP solution, which is the first scientific description to report NP preparation and initiated the history of NMs in the scientific arena.
He also revealed that the optical characteristics of Au colloids are dissimilar compared to their respective bulk counterpart. This was probably one of the earlier reports where quantum size effects were observed and described.
Later, Mie explained the reason behind the specific colors of metal colloids [ 32 ]. In the s, SiO 2 NPs were being manufactured as substitutes to carbon black for rubber reinforcement [ 33 ]. Today manufactured NMs can significantly improve the characteristics of bulk materials, in terms of strength, conductivity, durability, and lightness, and they can provide useful properties e.
Notwithstanding the other possible benefits, simply taking advantage of the beneficial size and shape effects to improve the appearance of materials is still a major application of NPs. Moreover, the commercial use of NMs is often limited to the bulk use of passive NMs embedded in an inert polymer or cement matrix, forming a nanocomposite.
NPs and NSMs are extensively used in auto production: as fillers in tires to improve adhesion to the road, fillers in the car body to improve the stiffness, and as transparent layers used for heated, mist and ice-free, window panes [ 35 ]. By the end of , Mercedes-Benz brought a NP-based clear coat into series production for both metallic and nonmetallic paint finishes.
The coating increases the scratch resistance and enhances the gloss. Liquid magnets, so-called ferrofluids, are ultrastable suspensions of small magnetic NPs with superparamagnetic properties [ 36 ].
Upon applying a magnetic field, the liquid will macroscopically magnetize, which leads to the alignment of NPs along the magnetic field direction [ 37 ]. Recent research has focused on creating enhanced Earth-based astronomical telescopes with adaptive optics and magnetic mirrors with the shape-shifting capability made up of ferrofluids [ 38 — 39 ].
TiO 2 NPs are commercially used in solar cells with dye-sensitization ability [ 40 ]. In summer , Logitech brought an external iPad keyboard powered by light on the market, representing the first major commercial use of dye-sensitized solar cells. In , there were about nanotechnology-based consumer products that are commercially available in over 20 countries [ 42 ]. Sources of nanomaterials can be classified into three main categories based on their origin: i incidental nanomaterials, which are produced incidentally as a byproduct of industrial processes such as nanoparticles produced from vehicle engine exhaust, welding fumes, combustion processes and even some natural process such as forest fires; ii engineered nanomaterials, which have been manufactured by humans to have certain required properties for desired applications and iii naturally produced nanomaterials, which can be found in the bodies of organisms, insects, plants, animals and human bodies.
However, the distinctions between naturally occurring, incidental, and manufactured NPs are often blurred. In some cases, for example, incidental NMs can be considered as a subcategory of natural NMs. Molecules are made up of atoms, which are the basic structural components of all living and nonliving organisms in nature. Atoms and molecules have been naturally manipulated several times to create intricate NPs and NSMs that continually contribute to life on earth. Incidental and naturally occurring NMs are continuously being formed within and distributed throughout ground and surface water, the oceans, continental soil, and the atmosphere.
One of the main differences between incidental and engineered NMs is that the morphology of engineered NMs can usually be better controlled as compared to incidental NMs; additionally, engineered NMs can be purposely designed to exploit novel features that stem from their small size.
It is known that metal NPs may be spontaneously generated from synthetic objects, which implies that humans have long been in direct contact with synthetic NMs and that macroscale objects are also a potential source of incidental nanoparticles in the environment.
Photochemical reactions, volcanic eruptions, and forest fires are some of the natural processes that lead to the production of natural NPs as mentioned.
In addition, skin and hair shedding of plants and animals, which is frequent in nature, contributes to NP composition in nature. Dust storms, volcanic eruptions, and forest fires are events of natural origin that are reported to produce high quantities of nanoparticulate matter that significantly affect worldwide air quality. Similarly, transportation, industrial operations, and charcoal burning are some of the human activities that lead to the emergence of synthetic NPs.
Dust storms and cosmic dust: The Eagle Nebula stars are light years away from Earth and are born with a disk-like cloud and the ability to form solar systems accompanied by dust and gas mostly hydrogen [ 44 ]. Diamond, of a few nanometers in diameter, has been observed in the Murchison meteorite, which is a perfect example of the nanoparticulate origin in planetary system objects other than stars [ 45 ].
Different types of NMs are present throughout the universe which are mixed, sorted and modified into several forms. Electromagnetic radiation, pressure gradients, dramatic temperature, physical collisions and shock waves help in energizing and forming NPs in space [ 44 ].
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The rapidly growing area of information technology constantly demands higher storage densities. Creating ever smaller magnetic structures is an important issue and the magic Terabits per square inch density an ambitious goal. This has led to a dramatically enhanced interest in magnetic nanoparticles and their behavior with a view to being able to design and control their properties to make them suitable for information storage. The toolbox for preparing such particles includes both physical and chemical related approaches with top down and bottom up preparation methods. Preparation, however, has to be accompanied by strict quality control including the arrangements of particles, their shape, structure and magnetic properties.
In recent years, researchers used many scientific studies to improve modern technologies in the field of reducing the phenomenon of pollution resulting from them. In this chapter, methods to prepare nanomaterials are described, and the main properties such as mechanical, electrical, and optical properties and their relations are determined. The investigation of nanomaterials needed high technologies that depend on a range of nanomaterials from 1 to nm; these are scanning electron microscopy SEM , transmission electron microscopy TEM , and X-ray diffractions XRD. The applications of nanomaterials in environmental improvement are different from one another depending on the type of devices used, for example, solar cells for producing clean energy, nanotechnologies in coatings for building exterior surfaces, and sonochemical decolorization of dyes by the effect of nanocomposite. Nanotechnology and the Environment. The term nanotechnology is the creation of functional material devices and systems through the control of matter in the range of 1— nm and the ability to work at the molecular level, atom by atom to create large structures with fundamentally new molecular organization.
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Review on nanoparticles and nanostructured materials: history, sources, toxicity and regulations
Nanoscience and nanotechnology are among the most widely used terms in the modern scientific and technological literature. Feynman described a process by which the ability to manipulate individual atoms and molecules might be developed, using one set of precise tools to build and operate another proportionally smaller set and so on down to the needed scale. In the course of this, he noted, scaling issues would arise from the changing magnitude of various physical phenomena: gravity would become less important whereas surface effects would become increasingly more significant. The field of nanoscience and nanotechnology is now growing very rapidly. According to the UK Royal Society, nanoscience is defined as the study of phenomena and manipulation of materials at atomic, molecular, and macromolecular scales, where properties differ significantly from those at a larger scale.
Nanomaterials attract tremendous attention in recent researches. Although extensive research has been done in this field it still lacks a comprehensive reference work that presents data on properties of different Nanomaterials. This Handbook of Nanomaterials Properties will be the first single reference work that brings together the various properties with wide breadth and scope. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide.
Nanomaterials research takes a materials science -based approach to nanotechnology , leveraging advances in materials metrology and synthesis which have been developed in support of microfabrication research. Materials with structure at the nanoscale often have unique optical, electronic, thermo-physical or mechanical properties. Nanomaterials are slowly becoming commercialized  and beginning to emerge as commodities.
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