Concave And Convex Mirrors Pdf
File Name: concave and convex mirrors .zip
Lateral visibility at road junctions can be improved by a convex mirror. Mainly in built-up areas, where visibility on one or both sides of an intersection may be hampered by space limitations, such a device is attractive because of its low cost and its actuated operating mode.
We only have to look as far as the nearest bathroom to find an example of an image formed by a mirror. Images in flat mirrors are the same size as the object and are located behind the mirror. Like lenses, mirrors can form a variety of images. For example, dental mirrors may produce a magnified image, just as makeup mirrors do.
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Optical lenses are polished glass or plastic substrates that are shaped with one or more curved surfaces that transmit light. Optical lenses may be used either uncoated or with an antireflective coating depending on their intended application. All optical lenses have a focal length which is the distance from the lens to the focal point along the optical axis of the lens. Three factors determine the focal length of a lens; the radius of curvature of the lens, the refractive index of the substrate from which the lens is made, and the medium in which the lens resides. Lenses that are highly curved and made from material with a high refractive index, and placed in a medium with a large difference in the refractive index will have a shorter focal length and will therefore be more powerful. Convex lenses bulge outward from the center and converge light rays parallel to the optical axis to a focal point beyond the lens. Therefore, they may also be referred to as positive or converging lenses.
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There are, again, two alternative methods of locating the image formed by a convex mirror. The first is graphical, and the second analytical. According to the graphical method, the image produced by a convex mirror can always be located by drawing a ray diagram according to four simple rules: An incident ray which is parallel to the principal axis is reflected as if it came from the virtual focus of the mirror. An incident ray which is directed towards the virtual focus of the mirror is reflected parallel to the principal axis. An incident ray which is directed towards the centre of curvature of the mirror is reflected back along its own path since it is normally incident on the mirror. An incident ray which strikes the mirror at its vertex is reflected such that its angle of incidence with respect to the principal axis is equal to its angle of reflection. The validity of these rules in the paraxial approximation is, again, fairly self-evident.
Predating even crude lenses, mirrors are perhaps the oldest optical element utilized by man to harness the power of light. Prehistoric cave dwellers were no doubt mesmerized by their reflections in undisturbed ponds and other bodies of water, but the earliest man-made mirrors were not discovered until Egyptian pyramidal artifacts dating back to around BC were examined. Mirrors made during the Greco-Roman period and the Middle Ages consisted of highly polished metals, such as bronze, tin, or silver, fashioned into slightly convex disks, which served mankind for over a millennium. It was not until the late Twelfth or early Thirteenth Centuries that the use of glass with a metallic backing was developed to produce looking glasses , but refinement of this technique took an additional several hundred years. By the Sixteenth Century, Venetian craftsmen were fabricating handsome mirrors fashioned from a sheet of flat glass coated with a thin layer of mercury-tin amalgam see Figure 1 for a Gothic version. Over the next few hundred years, German and French specialists developed mirror-making into a fine art, and exquisitely crafted mirrors decorated the halls, dining, living, and bedrooms of the European aristocracy. Finally, in the mids, German organic chemist Justus von Liebig devised a method for depositing metallic silver onto a pre-etched glass surface by chemically reducing an aqueous solution of silver nitrate.
We have already looked at reflection by plane mirrors in topic 8. When the reflecting surface is instead curved, we call it a curved mirror. There are two types of curved mirrors; concave and convex mirror. Curved mirrors whose reflecting surfaces curve inwards are called concave mirrors while those whose reflecting surfaces bulge outwards are called convex mirrors. When rays are produced behind the mirror, they are indicated using dotted lines. This means that they are imaginary or virtual.
the mirror on the inner, or concave, side of the curve. •A convex spherical mirror has the silvered surface of the mirror on Image Formed by a Concave Mirror.
A concave mirror has the reflecting surface that caves inwards.
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