list of self and cross pollinated crops pdf

List Of Self And Cross Pollinated Crops Pdf

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The breeding methods that have proved successful with self-pollinated species are: 1 mass selection; 2 pure-line selection; 3 hybridization, with the segregating generations handled by the pedigree method, the bulk method, or by the backcross method; and 4 development of hybrid varieties. In mass selection, seeds are collected from usually a few dozen to a few hundred desirable appearing individuals in a population, and the next generation is sown from the stock of mixed seed.

Classification of crop plants based on mode of pollination and mode of reproduction. In mass selection, seeds are collected from usually a few dozen to a few hundred desirable appearing individuals in a population, and the next generation is sown from the stock of mixed seed.

Plants develop seeds through a process called pollination. Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the stamen male flower part to the pistil female flower part. Since both a stamen and a pistil are necessary for seed formation, they are called essential organs. Most flowers contain two other parts, the sepals and petals, which may help attract insect pollinators.

Implications of Mating Behavior in Watermelon Breeding

Analyzed the data: CB. Wrote the paper: CB. Insect-pollinated crops provide important nutrients for human health.

Pollination, water and nutrients available to crops can influence yield, but it is not known if the nutritional value of the crop is also influenced. Almonds are an important source of critical nutrients for human health such as unsaturated fat and vitamin E.

We manipulated the pollination of almond trees and the resources available to the trees, to investigate the impact on the nutritional composition of the crop. The pollination treatments were: a exclusion of pollinators to initiate self-pollination and b hand cross-pollination; the plant resource treatments were: c reduced water and d no fertilizer.

In an orchard in northern California, trees were exposed to a single treatment or a combination of two one pollination and one resource. Both the fat and vitamin E composition of the nuts were highly influenced by pollination.

Lower proportions of oleic to linoleic acid, which are less desirable from both a health and commercial perspective, were produced by the self-pollinated trees. However, higher levels of vitamin E were found in the self-pollinated nuts.

In some cases, combined changes in pollination and plant resources sharpened the pollination effects, even when plant resources were not influencing the nutrients as an individual treatment. This study highlights the importance of insects as providers of cross-pollination for fruit quality that can affect human health, and, for the first time, shows that other environmental factors can sharpen the effect of pollination.

This contributes to an emerging field of research investigating the complexity of interactions of ecosystem services affecting the nutritional value and commercial quality of crops.

As the global population grows, so does the demand for food [1]. A balanced diet containing a broad spectrum of nutrients is important for human health [2] , [3]. The benefits of animal pollination for crop production have been documented for many crop species [5] — [7] , but the effects of animal pollination on the nutritional composition of crops and other measures of quality such as fruit shelf life and therefore its commercial value have just begun to be investigated [8] , [9].

Animal pollination may become a limiting resource if the growth of crops reliant on pollination outpaces the growth in the number of honey bee hives [10] and agricultural intensification and habitat loss continue to negatively affect wild bees [11] — [13].

Human population growth and climate change are predicted to increase the strain on the resources required for food production particularly water [14]. While the effects of plant resource shortages have been documented on the yield and development of crops [15] — [17] , the effects of the availability of water and other plant resources on nutritional composition are largely unknown. Almond Prunus dulcis [Mill. Clinical trials have shown almonds to be cardio-protective [19] , an effect that is attributed to their high monounsaturated fat content.

Almonds also contain linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid, and very small amounts of linolenic, an omega-3 fatty acid [20]. The health effects of omega-6 fatty acids are controversial, with evidence to suggest that the high omega-6 to omega-3 ratio of the Western diet is a contributor to cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes [21]. Since almond is a highly pollinator-dependent crop and a large consumer of water and fertilizer [23] , its production may be sensitive to fluctuations in these resources.

The aim of this study was to investigate if pollination and plant resource availability water and fertilizer influence the nutritional composition of almonds. We exposed whole almond trees to different pollination treatments the exclusion of pollinators to allow for self-pollination only and hand cross-pollination with compatible pollen to achieve high levels of cross-pollination and different resource treatments reduced water and no fertilizer. We investigated whether self-pollination and reduced plant resources fertilizer and water , when experienced by whole trees, influenced the nutritional composition of almonds, and if there were interacting effects.

The study was conducted in , in a 3. Our study orchard contained trees of the most popular variety for production, Nonpareil, grafted onto peach rootstock Prunus persica L. Batsch in and planted in third leaf planting. Honey bee hives were placed in the orchard during bloom with the eight nearest hives being — meters away. Whole trees were exposed to different pollination and resource treatments Table 1.

Hand-pollination was conducted from 20—28 th February. When flowers opened, Padre pollen was applied to the stigmas using small brushes. The trees exposed to self-pollination were covered with cages 1. For the three months before bloom, trees were irrigated when necessary and no fertilizer was applied. Once flowering began, three out of the four water emitters for each reduced water tree were closed. Reduced water trees received 27 L water every third day, while the other trees received L.

No nutrients were applied to the no fertilizer trees during bloom. Once flowering began, the other trees each received the following: All the experimental trees were similar in height and number of main branches. On 2 nd July, 48 fruits were harvested from each experimental tree. Fruits were randomly selected from the main branches 12, 16 or 24 fruits per branch, corresponding to trees with 4, 3 or 2 main branches. The harvested fruits were dried on the ground for seven days mimicking harvesting practices , with metal cages protecting them from bird and mammal predation.

After the seven days, the hulls were removed from the fruits and the shells were cracked. Louis, MO, U. A single analytical sample was a handful of almonds collected from several branches of an individual tree, and each tree within a treatment group was a replicate. Nuts from trees which had received the four single treatments were analyzed for their full nutritional composition Table 2.

Details of the analytical methods used in the nutritional analysis are given in the supporting information S1. Although each treatment group had five tree replicates in the orchard, some of the trees produced insufficient nuts for nutritional analysis so two treatments no fertilizer and self-pollination only had four replicate trees.

The trees which received two treatments one pollination plus one plant resource were analyzed for fats and vitamin E composition only, since the levels of these nutrients were found to vary most between samples see supporting information S2 and almonds are valued for these nutrients. The samples did not contain any lactose, maltose or trans fatty acids so these were removed from all analyses.

We performed non-metric multi-dimensional scaling NMDS with two dimensions of the nutritional data, to visualize differences in the nutritional composition of the nuts. To test if differences in the nutritional composition were related to the treatment group, permutational multivariate analysis of variance using Bray-Curtis distances was performed adonis, R package vegan. P values were calculated using F-tests based on sequential sums of squares from permutations of the data.

Analysis of variance of the distances was performed, with treatment group as the explanatory variable betadisper, R package vegan. P values were calculated from permutations of model residuals which were used to generate a permutation distribution of F under the null hypothesis of there being no difference in dispersion between the groups.

An analysis of variance was carried out for each nutrient separately, with the treatment group as the explanatory variable. The proportion oleic to linoleic fatty acids was also tested as it is an indicator of almond kernel quality [27]. A linear mixed effect model was run for each nutrient with the treatment as the explanatory variable.

We used a restricted likelihood ratio test to determine if the variance of the random effect of orchard row differed from zero R package RLRsim. All nutrients were tested for correlation. Linoleic acid an omega-6 is the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid in almonds, so the values for linoleic acid and total polyunsaturated fatty acids were highly correlated supporting information S3.

Similarly, as the predominant monounsaturated fat, levels of oleic acid were correlated with the total amount of monounsaturated fat and total fat.

We will therefore present the results for linoleic and oleic acid but not for monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids or total fat. The overall nutritional composition of the almonds differed between treatment groups Fig.

Almonds were collected from trees that had received one of four treatments: reduced water RW , no fertilizer NF , cross-pollination CP and self-pollination SP.

The content of a wide range of nutrients listed in Table 2 was quantified in the laboratory methods detailed in the supporting information S1. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance using Bray-Curtis distances was performed on the nutritional content of the almonds, with the treatment as the grouping factor, replicated at the tree level. Each point on the graph represents an individual tree that was exposed to one of the treatments and the hulls link trees exposed to the same treatment.

Vitamin E was highest in the self-pollinated nuts and was lowest in the nuts from treatments combined with hand cross-pollination, especially cross-pollinated with no fertilizer Fig. However, oleic acid was lower in the self-pollinated nuts of the single treatments Fig. Linoleic acid was highest in the self-pollinated nuts combined with no fertilizer and lowest in nuts from cross-pollinated trees Fig.

It was lower in self-pollinated nuts and decreased further when self-pollination was combined with no fertilizer. Single and combined treatments are separated by a dashed line. While the adverse effects of pollination limitation and resource scarcity on fruit set and crop development have been documented [15] , [17] , [28] , this is the first study to our knowledge, to test if pollination and plant resources act alone or in combination on the nutritional composition of a crop.

The effect of self-pollination on the nutritional composition of Nonpareil almonds was greater than the effect of reduced water and fertilizer. The health benefits of almonds are attributed to their fat composition and vitamin E, and these were both affected by the pollination treatments. We found the highest oleic to linoleic ratio in almonds in cross-pollinated trees, and the lowest ratio in pollinator-excluded trees.

Almonds with a high oleic to linoleic ratio would be most favorable to consumers seeking health benefits. The high oleic acid content is credited for the cardio-protective effect of almonds [19] , [29].

Although linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid that the body cannot synthesize, rising dietary levels of omega-6 fatty acids are believed to contribute to chronic diseases in Western cultures [21]. A positive effect of bee-pollinated flowers on shelf life was recently demonstrated for strawberry production, since bee pollination leads to firmer fruits that last longer [8].

Further, Klatt et al. Together these two effects increased the value attributed to bee-pollinated fruits. Other studies showed that oil content in oilseed rape Brassica napus var. Negative effects of limited pollination have included lowered calcium concentrations associated with storage disorders in Braeburn apples Malus domestica Borkh [32] , although this effect seems to be variety specific [9] and lowered fruit weight and length in self-pollinated Cucurbita moschata , cv.

Piramoita [33]. Consistent with previous studies, our overall findings were that cross-pollinated trees bore fruit with the most favorable nutritional content. The mechanism s for the impact of cross- versus self-pollination on nutrients is as yet unknown. Self-pollination in almond may alter the nutritional composition of the nuts through a reduced development rate. Higher levels of linoleic acid are found in the earlier stages of oil accumulation in almond, with levels declining in the later developmental stages as oleic acid increases [34].

The self-pollinated almonds may develop more slowly than the cross-pollinated almonds. Compatible pollen tubes were found to grow more quickly in almond than self-pollen tubes, and reached the ovary earlier [35].

In addition, self-pollination was found to delay megasporocyte differentiation [36]. If self-pollinated almonds develop more slowly, at harvest time they may not have accumulated as much oleic acid or lost as much linoleic acid as cross-pollinated almonds. While the mesh cages used to exclude pollinators from the trees could also have played a role in slowing fruit development by reducing the amount of sunlight the trees received, we would expect this to be minor due to the relatively short length of time the cages were covering the trees.

Klatt et al.

Breeding self-pollinated species

Breeding self-pollinated plants. This presentation aims to discuss strategies to increase the efficiency of selection in self-pollinated plants. It is also discussed the use of multiline as an alternative to extend the life of a cultivar. Key words : plant breeding, quantitative genetics, multiline, use of mixed models. The results of genetic breeding have been excellent for most self-pollinated species under improvement in Brazil. The evidence is the gain in productivity over the past 30 years. The mean gain of some of the most important species in the country was 4.

Analyzed the data: CB. Wrote the paper: CB. Insect-pollinated crops provide important nutrients for human health. Pollination, water and nutrients available to crops can influence yield, but it is not known if the nutritional value of the crop is also influenced. Almonds are an important source of critical nutrients for human health such as unsaturated fat and vitamin E. We manipulated the pollination of almond trees and the resources available to the trees, to investigate the impact on the nutritional composition of the crop.

Top 3 Breeding Methods Used for Cross-Pollinated Crops

This article throws light upon the top three breeding methods used for cross-pollinated crops. The methods are: 1. Mass Pedigree Method 2. Inbreeding 3. Recurrent Selection.

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За годы, прошедшие после появления в АНБ Сьюзан, Стратмор поднялся с поста начальника Отдела развития криптографии до второй по важности позиции во всем агентстве. Теперь только один человек в АНБ был по должности выше коммандера Стратмора - директор Лиланд Фонтейн, мифический правитель Дворца головоломок, которого никто никогда не видел, лишь изредка слышал, но перед которым все дрожали от страха.

Стеклянный графин на верхней полке угрожающе подпрыгнул и звонко опустился на место. - Проголодалась? - спросил Хейл, подходя к. Голос его звучал спокойно и чуточку игриво.  - Откроем пачку тофу.

 Мы его не украли, - искренне удивилась Росио.  - Человек умирал, и у него было одно желание. Мы просто исполнили его последнюю волю.

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