Speeches Writings And Statements Of Iqbal Pdf
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- Speech on allama iqbal in english pdf
- Muhammad Iqbal
- The Idea of Pakistan 1930
- Allama Iqbal Speeches, Writings & Statements in English PDF
Although he established a law practice after returning, he concentrated primarily on writing scholarly works on politics, economics, history, philosophy, and religion.
Speech on allama iqbal in english pdf
Although he established a law practice after returning, he concentrated primarily on writing scholarly works on politics, economics, history, philosophy, and religion. He is best known for his poetic works, including Asrar-e-Khudi —which brought a knighthood — Rumuz-e-Bekhudi , and the Bang-e-Dara. Iqbal was a strong proponent of the political and spiritual revival of Islamic civilisation across the world, but in particular in South Asia; a series of lectures he delivered to this effect were published as The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam.
A leader in the All India Muslim League , he envisioned—in his presidential address—a separate political framework for Muslims in British-ruled India. Iqbal's grandfather was an eighth cousin of Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru , an important lawyer and freedom fighter who would eventually become an admirer of Iqbal.
Iqbal's father, Sheikh Noor Muhammad died , was a tailor, not formally educated, but a religious man. She died on 9 November in Sialkot. Who would display restlessness if my letter fails to arrive? I will visit thy grave with this complaint: Who will now think of me in midnight prayers? All thy life thy love served me with devotion—. When I became fit to serve thee, thou hast departed. Iqbal was four years old when he was sent to a mosque to receive instruction in reading the Qur'an. He learned the Arabic language from his teacher, Syed Mir Hassan , the head of the madrasa and professor of Arabic at Scotch Mission College in Sialkot, where he matriculated in Jalaluddin medal as he performed well in Arabic.
Iqbal married three times under different circumstances. Iqbal and Karim Bibi separated somewhere between and Despite this, he continued to financially support her till his death. Iqbal was influenced by the teachings of Sir Thomas Arnold , his philosophy teacher at Government College Lahore, to pursue higher education in the West. In , he travelled to England for that purpose.
While already acquainted with Friedrich Nietzsche and Henri Bergson , Iqbal would discover Rumi slightly before his departure to England, and he would teach the Masnavi to his friend Swami Rama Tirtha , who in return would teach him Sanskrit. In the same year he was called to the bar as a barrister at Lincoln's Inn. In , Iqbal moved to Germany to pursue his doctoral studies, and earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree from the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich in In , he had a close friendship with the writer Atiya Fyzee in both Britain and Germany.
Atiya would later publish their correspondence. He preferred to write in this language because doing so made it easier to express his thoughts. He would write continuously in Persian throughout his life.
Iqbal began his career as a reader of Arabic after completing his Master of Arts degree in , at Oriental College and shortly afterward was selected as a junior professor of philosophy at Government College Lahore, where he had also been a student in the past. He worked there until he left for England in In he went to Germany for PhD.
In , he returned from Germany and joined the same college again as a professor of philosophy and English literature. Iqbal's thoughts in his work primarily focus on the spiritual direction and development of human society, centered around experiences from his travels and stays in Western Europe and the Middle East. He was profoundly influenced by Western philosophers such as Nietzsche, Bergson, and Goethe.
The poetry and philosophy of Rumi strongly influenced Iqbal. Deeply grounded in religion since childhood, Iqbal began concentrating intensely on the study of Islam, the culture and history of Islamic civilisation and its political future, while embracing Rumi as "his guide".
Iqbal denounced political divisions within and amongst Muslim nations, and frequently alluded to and spoke in terms of the global Muslim community or the Ummah. Iqbal's poetry was translated into many European languages in the early part of the 20th century. Nicholson and A. Arberry , respectively. Iqbal was not only a prolific writer but was also a known advocate. He appeared before the Lahore High Court in both civil and criminal matters.
There are more than reported judgments to his name. In , after returning from a trip to Spain and Afghanistan, Iqbal suffered from a mysterious throat illness. He also advocated for an independent Muslim state. Iqbal ceased practising law in and was granted a pension by the Nawab of Bhopal. In his final years, he frequently visited the Dargah of famous Sufi Ali Hujwiri in Lahore for spiritual guidance.
After suffering for months from his illness, Iqbal died in Lahore on 21 April Iqbal first became interested in national affairs in his youth. He received considerable recognition from the Punjabi elite after his return from England in , and he was closely associated with Mian Muhammad Shafi. When the All-India Muslim League was expanded to the provincial level, and Shafi received a significant role in the structural organisation of the Punjab Muslim League , Iqbal was made one of the first three joint secretaries along with Shaikh Abdul Aziz and Maulvi Mahbub Alam.
He was a critic of the mainstream Indian National Congress , which he regarded as dominated by Hindus , and was disappointed with the League when, during the s, it was absorbed in factional divides between the pro-British group led by Shafi and the centrist group led by Jinnah. He was also given the offer of being the first vice-chancellor of Jamia Millia Islamia by Mahatma Gandhi , which he refused. In November , with the encouragement of friends and supporters, Iqbal contested the election for a seat in the Punjab Legislative Assembly from the Muslim district of Lahore, and defeated his opponent by a margin of 3, votes.
Ideologically separated from Congress Muslim leaders, Iqbal had also been disillusioned with the politicians of the Muslim League, owing to the factional conflict that plagued the League in the s. Discontent with factional leaders like Shafi and Fazl-ur-Rahman, Iqbal came to believe that only Jinnah was a political leader capable of preserving unity and fulfilling the League's objectives of Muslim political empowerment.
Building a strong, personal correspondence with Jinnah, Iqbal was influential in convincing Jinnah to end his self-imposed exile in London, return to India and take charge of the League. Iqbal firmly believed that Jinnah was the only leader capable of drawing Indian Muslims to the League and maintaining party unity before the British and the Congress:.
I know you are a busy man, but I do hope you won't mind my writing to you often, as you are the only Muslim in India today to whom the community has right to look up for safe guidance through the storm which is coming to North-West India and, perhaps, to the whole of India.
While Iqbal espoused the idea of Muslim-majority provinces in , Jinnah would continue to hold talks with the Congress through the decade and only officially embraced the goal of Pakistan in Some historians postulate that Jinnah always remained hopeful for an agreement with the Congress and never fully desired the partition of India.
Iqbal elucidated to Jinnah his vision of a separate Muslim state in a letter sent on 21 June A separate federation of Muslim Provinces, reformed on the lines I have suggested above, is the only course by which we can secure a peaceful India and save Muslims from the domination of Non-Muslims. Why should not the Muslims of North-West India and Bengal be considered as nations entitled to self-determination just as other nations in India and outside India are.
Iqbal, serving as president of the Punjab Muslim League, criticised Jinnah's political actions, including a political agreement with Punjabi leader Sikandar Hyat Khan , whom Iqbal saw as a representative of feudal classes and not committed to Islam as the core political philosophy. Nevertheless, Iqbal worked constantly to encourage Muslim leaders and masses to support Jinnah and the League.
Speaking about the political future of Muslims in India, Iqbal said:. There is only one way out. Muslims should strengthen Jinnah's hands. They should join the Muslim League. Indian question, as is now being solved, can be countered by our united front against both the Hindus and the English. Without it, our demands are not going to be accepted. People say our demands smack of communalism. This is sheer propaganda. These demands relate to the defense of our national existence.
The united front can be formed under the leadership of the Muslim League. And the Muslim League can succeed only on account of Jinnah. Now none but Jinnah is capable of leading the Muslims. The lectures had been delivered at Madras , Hyderabad and Aligarh.
Iqbal expressed fears that not only would secularism weaken the spiritual foundations of Islam and Muslim society, but that India's Hindu -majority population would crowd out Muslim heritage, culture and political influence. In his travels to Egypt , Afghanistan , Iran and Turkey , he promoted ideas of greater Islamic political co-operation and unity, calling for the shedding of nationalist differences.
Ambedkar , Iqbal expressed his desire to see Indian provinces as autonomous units under the direct control of the British government and with no central Indian government.
He envisaged autonomous Muslim regions in India. Under a single Indian union, he feared for Muslims, who would suffer in many respects, especially concerning their existentially separate entity as Muslims. Iqbal was elected president of the Muslim League in at its session in Allahabad in the United Provinces , as well as for the session in Lahore in In his presidential address on 29 December he outlined a vision of an independent state for Muslim-majority provinces in north-western India: .
Self-government within the British Empire , or without the British Empire, the formation of a consolidated Northwest Indian Muslim state appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of Northwest India. In his speech, Iqbal emphasised that, unlike Christianity, Islam came with "legal concepts" with "civic significance", with its "religious ideals" considered as inseparable from social order: "Therefore, if it means a displacement of the Islamic principle of solidarity, the construction of a policy on national lines, is simply unthinkable to a Muslim.
He thus became the first politician to articulate what would become known as the Two-nation theory —that Muslims are a distinct nation and thus deserve political independence from other regions and communities of India. Even as he rejected secularism and nationalism he would not elucidate or specify if his ideal Islamic state would be a theocracy , and criticised the "intellectual attitudes" of Islamic scholars ulema as having "reduced the Law of Islam practically to the state of immobility".
The latter part of Iqbal's life was concentrated on political activity. He travelled across Europe and West Asia to garner political and financial support for the League. He reiterated the ideas of his address, and, during the third Round Table Conference , he opposed the Congress and proposals for transfer of power without considerable autonomy or independence for Muslim provinces.
He would serve as president of the Punjab Muslim League, and would deliver speeches and publish articles in an attempt to rally Muslims across India as a single political entity. Iqbal consistently criticised feudal classes in Punjab as well as Muslim politicians opposed to the League. Many accounts of Iqbal's frustration toward Congress leadership were also pivotal in providing a vision for the two-nation theory.
Iqbal was the first patron of Tolu-e-Islam , a historical, political, religious and cultural journal of the Muslims of British India. For a long time, Iqbal wanted a journal to propagate his ideas and the aims and objectives of the All India Muslim League. In , according to his instructions, Syed Nazeer Niazi initiated and edited the journal,  named after Iqbal's poem " Tulu'i Islam ". Niazi dedicated the first issue of the journal to Iqbal. The journal would play an important role in the Pakistan movement.
Today, we face many problems at the planetary, national, local, and personal level. What is interesting and important is the fact that the environmental crisis that we have been facing since the s is seen by many environmentalists as a crisis of Western civilization, a slow collective suicide, and "the defining challenge of our age. Moreover, environmental, social, and economic threats are aimed at everyone without discrimination, be they Christian, Jew, Muslim, or Buddhist. Therefore, the very nature of the environmental crisis and challenge requires a cooperative, global response. In this context, this study suggests that Eastern societies may re-discover the richness of their own traditions in the light of pressing environmental problems and offer new insights to respond to these problems.
Muslims of India experienced the expression of sword in the War of independence which failed to accomplish their goal and reviving the glorious Muslim rule. On the contrary the services rendered through pen cultivated thoughts in the masses, facilitated them in releasing their strength to over come weaknesses and motivated them cherished their dreams. Allama Iqbal stood distinguished in this regard. He experienced intellectual growth and conveyed and nurtured his thoughts to the Muslims of India to understand and strife for their separate identity. The philosophical thoughts enunciated by Iqbal were not a spontaneous outcome. Various developments in his life enabled him to evolve and unfold his ideas about Islamic universalism and Muslim nationalism.
I have no doubt that in this great assembly there are men whose political experience is far more extensive than mine, and for whose knowledge of affairs I have the highest respect. It will, therefore, be presumptuous on my part to claim to guide an assembly of such men in the political decisions which they are called upon to make today. I lead no party; I follow no leader. I have given the best part of my life to a careful study of Islam, its law and polity, its culture, its history and its literature. This constant contact with the spirit of Islam, as it unfolds itself in time, has, I think, given me a kind of insight into its significance as a world fact.
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The Idea of Pakistan 1930
Sir Muhammad Iqbal November 9, - April 21, , also known as Allama Iqbal, was an Indian philosopher, poet and politician who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement. He is considered one of the most important figures in Urdu literature, with literary work in both the Urdu and Persian languages. He wrote Sare Jahan se Accha , which is one of India's national songs. In , in one of his most famous speeches, Iqbal pushed for the creation of a Muslim state in Northwest India. Editor's note: The text of the speech is from the website of Dr.
Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal. Contacto: mohomed.
Allama Iqbal Speeches, Writings & Statements in English PDF
The primary aim of the Reconstruction is to rejuvenate Muslim thought in the modern context. To this end, it enters into a critical engagement with the intellectual, religious, spiritual, and scientific thought of the Muslim and Western traditions, inquiring into the prospects of bringing into harmony, from an Islamic standpoint and in an Islamic setting, tradition and modernity, religion and science. The legacy of the Reconstruction is its invitation to Muslims to reassess the entire Islamic tradition, being fully cognizant of modern developments in thought without breaking with their own past.
Speech on allama iqbal in english pdf Speech on allama iqbal in english pdf. Free download or read online famous Urdu book "Asrar-e-Khudi" and read the wonderful poetry of Dr. Allama Mohammad Iqbal. Allama Iqbal was born on 19th November at Sialkot, in
Early life and career
Muhammad Iqbal , in full Sir Muhammad Iqbal , also spelled Muhammad Ikbal , born November 9, , Sialkot , Punjab, India [now in Pakistan]—died April 21, , Lahore, Punjab , poet and philosopher known for his influential efforts to direct his fellow Muslims in British-administered India toward the establishment of a separate Muslim state, an aspiration that was eventually realized in the country of Pakistan. He was knighted in Iqbal was born at Sialkot, India now in Pakistan , of a pious family of small merchants and was educated at Government College, Lahore. In Europe from to , he earned a degree in philosophy from the University of Cambridge , qualified as a barrister in London, and received a doctorate from the University of Munich. His thesis, The Development of Metaphysics in Persia , revealed some aspects of Islamic mysticism formerly unknown in Europe. On his return from Europe, he gained his livelihood by the practice of law, but his fame came from his Persian- and Urdu-language poetry, which was written in the classical style for public recitation.
Ей в голову пришла и другая мысль - известно ли Хейлу, что Танкадо уже нет в живых. Сьюзан стала быстро закрывать файлы электронной почты Хейла, уничтожая следы своего посещения. Хейл ничего не должен заподозрить -. Ключ к Цифровой крепости, внезапно осенило ее, прячется где-то в глубинах этого компьютера. Когда Сьюзан закрывала последний файл, за стеклом Третьего узла мелькнула тень.
- Я гожусь тебе в матери. Могла бы не напоминать, - подумал. Мидж подошла к его столу. - Я ухожу, но директору эти цифры нужны к его возвращению из Южной Америки. То есть к понедельнику, с самого утра.
Но, сеньор, она занята с клиентом. - Это очень важно, - извиняющимся тоном сказал Беккер. Вопрос национальной безопасности.
Глаза немца сузились. - Ein Ring, - сказал Беккер. - Du hast einen Ring. У вас есть кольцо.
Сьюзан внезапно подумала, что Хейл, возможно, говорит правду, но потом прогнала эту мысль. Нет, решила .