Different Types Of Soil And Their Characteristics Pdf
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- Common soil types
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- Soil classification
Widespread in northern plains and river valleys. In peninsular-India, they are mostly found in deltas and estuaries.
Soil can be categorised into sand, clay, silt, peat, chalk and loam types of soil based on the dominating size of the particles within a soil. Sandy Soil is light, warm, dry and tend to be acidic and low in nutrients. Sandy soils are often known as light soils due to their high proportion of sand and little clay clay weighs more than sand.
Common soil types
Inoculation of soils with cyanobacteria is proposed as a sustainable biotechnological technique for restoration of degraded areas in drylands due to the important role that cyanobacteria and their exopolysaccharides EPS play in the environment. So far, few studies have analyzed the macromolecular and chemical characteristics of the polysaccharidic matrix in induced cyanobacterial biocrusts and the scarce existing studies have mainly focused on sandy soil textures.
However, the characteristics of the cyanobacterial polysaccharidic matrix may greatly depend on soil type. The objective of this study was to examine the macromolecular distribution and monosaccharidic composition of the polysaccharidic matrix induced by inoculation of two cyanobacterial species common in arid environments, Phormidium ambiguum non N-fixing and Scytonema javanicum N-fixing in different soil types.
The two EPS fractions showed a complex monosaccharidic composition from 11 to 12 different types of monosaccharides , with glucose as the most abundant monosaccharide, in particular in the poorer soils characterized by lower organic C contents.
In more C-rich soils, high abundances of galactose, mannose, and xylose were also found. Low abundance of uronic acids and hydrophobic monosaccharides, such as fucose and rhamnose, was found in the EPS extracted from the inoculated soils.
Our results point to the influence of soil type on the macromolecular distribution and monosaccharide composition of the polysaccharidic matrix in induced biocrusts, which is likely to affect biocrust development and their role in soil structure and nutrient cycling in restored dryland soils.
Cyanobacteria are the oldest oxygenic phototrophic microorganisms found in the Earth and the primary colonizers of terrestrial ecosystems [ 1 ]. They play a particularly important role as primary producers in desert areas where they act as pioneer organisms forming biological soil crust or biocrust communities [ 2 ]. In these environments, cyanobacteria improve soil functions by increasing carbon and nitrogen contents, soil aggregation and stability and soil water status [ 3 , 4 ].
Many of these functions are related to their ability to secrete large amounts of exopolysaccharides EPS [ 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ]. Cyanobacterial EPSs are key in the consolidation of soil particles and the setting of initial conditions for establishment of biocrust communities [ 5 ]. Bare soils are initially colonized by large mobile filamentous cyanobacteria, usually belonging to the genus Microcoleus, which can be able to migrate to the surface upon wetting and retreat immediately below upon drying [ 9 ].
This movement spreads sheath and EPS material throughout the uppermost soil layer, improving soil aggregation in the top soil profile [ 10 ]. Then, smaller, less mobile cyanobacteria colonize the soil [ 11 ]. In later successional stages, if conditions permit, lichens and mosses colonize the soil [ 12 ]. Macromolecular and chemical characterization of EPSs has been thoroughly studied in batch cultures in the laboratory for isolated cyanobacterial species [ 29 , 30 ].
However, characterization of the polysaccharidic matrix in natural or artificially induced cyanobacterial soil crusts remains much less explored. These two fractions may confer contrasting properties to soils depending on their macromolecular and chemical features, directly affecting the role that cyanobacteria play in hydrological and biogeochemical processes in dryland soils and their interactions with soil microbial and plant communities.
Previous studies have shown the effectiveness of soil inoculation with EPS-producing cyanobacteria in soil aggregation and fertility, and water relations [ 23 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 ]. Most studies have used Oscillatoriales species, mainly Microcoleus vaginatus, or a mixture of Oscillatoriales and Nostocales species, with M.
However, the effect of induced biocrusts on soil properties largely depends on the selected cyanobacterial strain and inherent properties of the inoculated soil [ 23 , 37 ].
In spite of the importance of the polysaccharidic matrix for the successful performance and development of biocrusts and their effects on soil properties, only few studies have examined the macromolecular and chemical features of cyanobacterial EPS in induced biocrusts.
These studies have been conducted either in laboratory [ 34 , 38 ] or field conditions [ 26 , 39 , 40 ], and all of them have focused uniquely on sandy substrates.
To our knowledge, no previous studies have analyzed the characteristics of the EPS matrix in induced cyanobacterial crusts in different soil types with contrasting physical and chemical properties. Knowledge of how the characteristics of the polysaccharidic matrix are affected by different soil types is crucial to understand the role of EPSs in biocrusts [ 8 ], and also to select the most suitable strains according to the characteristics of the soils that need to be restored. The aim of this study was to investigate the macromolecular and chemical features of the soil polysaccharidic matrix induced by inoculation of two different cyanobacteria with different physiological and morphological traits on four semiarid soil types characterized by different soil texture from fine to coarse particle size distribution and organic carbon and nitrogen contents.
The selection of the two cyanobacterial species was based on the wide distribution of Phormidium sp. In addition, the two cyanobacteria occupy different niches in the soil.
The genus Scytonema usually lives on the soil surface, while Phormidium sp. The two cyanobacterial strains were grown in BG11 0 S. Soils were sterilized with the objective of isolating the effect of the selected cyanobacteria strains on the characteristics of the EPS matrix and minimizing the influence on the EPS properties of other autotrophs naturally present in the soil. Then, three treatments were set up for each soil type: soil inoculation with P.
Three replicates were considered for each treatment. More information about the soil inoculation experiments can be found in Chamizo et al. The crust was manually ground to a fine powder with mortar and pestle for the soil chemical analyses. Chlorophyll a was extracted using ethanol as solvent. Chlorophyll a content was calculated according to the following equation:. This process was repeated three times for each sample and the three supernatants obtained were collected together.
TB-EPSs were recovered from the resulting pellet using three extractions with 0. The three supernatants obtained after the three extractions were collected together. Three instrumental replicates of each sample were conducted.
Afterward, the excess of TFA was removed by drying on a rotary evaporator and the dried extracts re-solubilized in deionized water. This operation was repeated three times for each sample. Peaks for each sugar were identified on the basis of the retention time of known standards.
The ratio of inoculated to control soil was determined for chlorophyll a , LB-EPS, and TB-EPS contents in order to assess the magnitude of change of these variables in the inoculated with respect to the non-inoculated soils. A ratio equal to 1 indicates similar values in control and inoculated soils, while a ratio greater than 1 indicates higher content in the inoculated than in the non-inoculated soils.
A principal component analysis PCA was performed on monosaccharidic composition data in order to compress the information on to a smaller number of non-colinear variables or principal components PCs. In PCA, the scores are calculated such that the first PC accounts for the largest variation in the data and has the maximum variance of the scores, and the following PCs explain as much of the remaining variation as possible. Data were plotted to observe possible differences between soil or inoculum types according to monosaccharidic composition.
The inoculated soils showed significantly higher chlorophyll a content than control soils and the highest values were found in the sandy soil inoculated with S. The number in bold above the bars indicates the ratio inoculated to control soil. The amount of the two EPS fractions also varied with soil type and inoculum treatment. Differences were observed in the amount of the two EPS fractions depending on the inoculated strain.
In contrast, P. The percentage of low MW molecules was similar in the soils inoculated with P. In the silt loam soil, inoculation with P. Values are the average of three replicates and bars represent standard deviation. Values correspond to the average of three replicates and bars represent standard deviation.
IEC analyses displayed the complexity of the polysaccharidic matrix of the two EPS fractions in terms of monosaccharidic composition. LB-EPSs were generally composed of ten monosaccharides. Fructose, ribose, and galacturonic acid were not present or detected only in traces Fig. TB-EPSs were generally composed of 12 monosaccharides, with ribose absent or detected only in traces Fig. Glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose were the monosaccharides present at the highest percentage in both fractions.
Cyanobacteria inoculation induced differences in the molar percentage of monosaccharides depending on soil type. In the LB-EPS fraction, inoculated sandy soils showed much higher glucose abundance than the other finer textured soils, but these showed higher abundance of galactose, mannose, and xylose Table S1.
The sandy loam soil showed the lowest glucose and the highest mannose and xylose content of all soils. This soil showed also higher amino-sugars content Fig. Differences between the two inoculum types in the monosaccharidic composition of the LB-EPSs were found in the silt loam and sandy soils. In the silt loam soil, P. In addition, P. In the sandy soil, an opposite trend was found.
A lower number of monosaccharides was found in the sandy soil inoculated with P. In this soil, P. Values correspond to the average of six replicates 3 samples of P. In the TB-EPS fraction, inoculated sandy soils showed higher abundance of glucose and no presence of galacturonic acid compared to the other soil types Fig. Main differences between the two inoculum types were found in the sandy soil.
Application of PCA to the monosaccharidic composition of LB-EPS and TB-EPS extracted from inoculated soils and from controls excluding silty loam and sandy soils where all monosaccharides were found in traces showed that the first and second components explained The first component positively correlated with fucose, arabinose, galactosamine, and glucosamine, and negatively with glucose. The second component positively correlated with xylose, mannose, galactose, and uronic acids, and negatively with rhamnose, glucosamine, and galactosamine.
No clear separation was found among soil types or inoculum types. However, inoculated sandy soils tended to group separately from the resting soils, associated to glucose abundance.
It could also be seen that the centroid for controls was separated from inoculated soils Fig. Score plot of PC1 vs PC2 showing the distribution of control and inoculated soils according to the monosaccharidic composition. Monosaccharides in control samples from silt loam and sandy soils were detected in traces and then excluded of the PCA analysis. The centroids for controls and inoculated soils are also shown. Several studies have demonstrated the possibility of accelerating biocrust formation in disturbed bare areas by means of soil inoculation with cyanobacteria or other biocrust organisms [ 32 , 33 , 47 ].
In this study, inoculation of two cyanobacterial strains in four soil types led to biocrust formation, resulting in significant increases in chlorophyll a and EPS contents. However, contrasting differences were found depending on soil type and the inoculated strain. Inoculation of S. This species has been reported to grow on the surface, allowing it to have a more efficient use of light to fix C and N [ 6 ] and favoring its faster growth.
As recently reported, the effect of cyanobacteria in increasing C and N content is more remarkable in soils having lower nutrient content, while having a less significant effect in more nutrient-rich soils [ 23 , 37 ]. Interestingly, the inoculated soils showed significant differences in the amount of the two EPS fractions depending on the inoculated strain. Soils inoculated with S.
This could lead to differences in the availability of C sources for soil microbial community depending on the abundance of one of other cyanobacterial species in the biocrusts. In cyanobacterial biocrusts, the enzymes that hydrolyze low MW substrates are more active than those that hydrolyze high MW substrates [ 48 ]. Consequently, higher synthesis by S. This is supported by previous results found by us in which soil inoculation with P.
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Learn more. There is a variety of soils across Queensland. These soils are the cracking clay soils of the Darling Downs and Central Highlands. A large belt of grey and brown Vertosols also run from the New South Wales border to Charters Towers—corresponding with Brigalow forests. This soil type is usually associated with previous volcanic activity and is mainly located along the Great Dividing Range. Large areas of these soils occur around Kingaroy and Atherton where they are used for intensive crop production. Dermosols are red, brown, yellow, grey or black and have loam to clay textures.
characteristics of this soil type compared with the other soils in the area, this soil Secondly, there are the brown gradational and forest brown soils which are.
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Inoculation of soils with cyanobacteria is proposed as a sustainable biotechnological technique for restoration of degraded areas in drylands due to the important role that cyanobacteria and their exopolysaccharides EPS play in the environment. So far, few studies have analyzed the macromolecular and chemical characteristics of the polysaccharidic matrix in induced cyanobacterial biocrusts and the scarce existing studies have mainly focused on sandy soil textures. However, the characteristics of the cyanobacterial polysaccharidic matrix may greatly depend on soil type.
See the Latest Publications. Browse All Publications. Download PDF. Revised by Thomas F. Scherer, Extension Agricultural Engineer.
Pedology pp Cite as. It has to classify the higher units, to group the major soil types of the world according to the genesis of their basic properties and thus provide a framework, of some kind, to act as a basis for the science of pedology;. It has to provide a means of making large-scale maps for practical purposes, such as in agronomy, which often necessitates the use of detailed characteristics, that are of local importance only, in defining and naming units.
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Redoximorphic soil characteristics and their relation to rH values and soil Additional codes may be used to further specify the land-use type. For example: AA4.
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