art and architecture of mughal empire pdf

Art And Architecture Of Mughal Empire Pdf

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Born January 5, in Lahore, he died on January 22, in Agra at the age of 74 years.

Indus Valley. Rajput Civil Architecture.

Mughal architecture is the type of Indo-Islamic architecture developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the ever-changing extent of their empire in the Indian subcontinent. It developed the styles of earlier Muslim dynasties in India as an amalgam of Islamic , Persian , Turkish and Indian architecture. Mughal buildings have a uniform pattern of structure and character, including large bulbous domes, slender minarets at the corners, massive halls, large vaulted gateways, and delicate ornamentation; Examples of the style can be found in modern-day India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. The Mughal dynasty was established after the victory of Babur at Panipat in During his five-year reign, Babur took considerable interest in erecting buildings, though few have survived.

Download Mughal Architecture PDF in English and Hindi for UPSC

British Broadcasting Corporation Home. Learn about the Mughal Empire that ruled most of India and Pakistan in the 16th and 17th centuries. It consolidated Islam in South Asia, and spread Muslim and particularly Persian arts and culture as well as the faith. The Mughals were Muslims who ruled a country with a large Hindu majority. However for much of their empire they allowed Hindus to reach senior government or military positions. There had been Muslims in India long before the Mughals.

The first Muslims arrived in the 8th century. In the first half of the 10th century a Muslim ruler of Afghanistan invaded the Punjab 11 times, without much political success, but taking away a great deal of loot. A more successful invasion came at the end of the 12th century.

This eventually led to the formation of the Delhi Sultanate. The Mughal Empire grew out of descendants of the Mongol Empire who were living in Turkestan in the 15th century. They had become Muslims and assimilated the culture of the Middle East, while keeping elements of their Far Eastern roots.

They also retained the great military skill and cunning of their Mongol ancestors, and were among the first Western military leaders to use guns. Babur succeeded his father as ruler of the state of Farghana in Turkestan when he was only 12, although he was swiftly deposed by older relatives.

Babur moved into Afghanistan in , and then moved on to India, apparently at the invitation of some Indian princes who wanted to dispose of their ruler. Babur disposed of the ruler, and decided to take over himself. The Empire he founded was a sophisticated civilisation based on religious toleration. It was a mixture of Persian, Mongol and Indian culture.

Trade with the rest of the Islamic world, especially Persia and through Persia to Europe, was encouraged. The importance of slavery in the Empire diminished and peace was made with the Hindu kingdoms of Southern India.

Babur brought a broad-minded, confident Islam from central Asia. His first act after conquering Delhi was to forbid the killing of cows because that was offensive to Hindus. Babur may have been descended from brutal conquerors, but he was not a barbarian bent on loot and plunder. Instead he had great ideas about civilisation, architecture and administration. He even wrote an autobiography, The Babur - Namah. The autobiography is candid, honest and at times even poetic.

Babur was followed by his son Humayun who was a bad emperor, a better poet, and a drug addict. He rapidly lost the empire. He did eventually recover the throne but died soon afterwards after breaking his neck falling downstairs. While Humayan was certainly disastrous as a ruler, his love of poetry and culture heavily influenced his son Akbar, and helped to make the Mughal Empire an artistic power as well as a military one.

The third Emperor, Abu Akbar, is regarded as one of the great rulers of all time, regardless of country. Akbar succeeded to the throne at 13, and started to recapture the remaining territory lost from Babur's empire. By the time of his death in he ruled over most of north, central, and western India. Akbar worked hard to win over the hearts and minds of the Hindu leaders. While this may well have been for political reasons - he married a Hindu princess and is said to have married several thousand wives for political and diplomatic purposes - it was also a part of his philosophy.

Akbar believed that all religions should be tolerated, and that a ruler's duty was to treat all believers equally, whatever their belief. He established a form of delegated government in which the provincial governors were personally responsible to him for the quality of government in their territory.

Akbar's government machine included many Hindus in positions of responsibility - the governed were allowed to take a major part in the governing.

Akbar also ended a tax jizya that had been imposed on non-Muslims. This discriminatory tax had been much resented, and ending it was a popular move. An innovation was the amount of autonomy he allowed to the provinces. For example, non-Muslims were not forced to obey Islamic law as was the case in many Islamic lands , and Hindus were allowed to regulate themselves through their own law and institutions.

The Emperor proclaimed an entirely new state religion of 'God-ism' Din-i-ilahi - a jumble of Islamic, Hindu, Christian and Buddhist teaching with himself as deity. It never spread beyond his court and died when he did. Fatehpur Sikri was the new capital built by Akbar, as a part of his attempt to absorb other religions into Islam. Fatehpur Sikri is a synthesis of Hindu and Islamic architecture.

Akbar's son, Emperor Jahangir, readopted Islam as the state religion and continued the policy of religious toleration. His court included large numbers of Indian Hindus, Persian Shi'a and Sufis and members of local heterodox Islamic sects.

Jahangir also began building the magnificent monuments and gardens by which the Mughals are chiefly remembered today, importing hundreds of Persian architects to build palaces and create magnificent gardens. Jahangir's approach was typified by the development of Urdu as the official language of Empire. Urdu uses an Arabic script, but Persian vocabulary and Hindi grammatical structure. The architectural achievements of the Mughals peaked between and , during the reign of Jahangir's successor Jahan.

Jahan commissioned the Taj Mahal. The Taj Mahal marks the apex of the Mughal Empire; it symbolises stability, power and confidence. The building is a mausoleum built by Jahan for his wife Mumtaz and it has come to symbolise the love between two people. Jahan's selection of white marble and the overall concept and design of the mausoleum give the building great power and majesty.

Jahan brought together fresh ideas in the creation of the Taj. Many of the skilled craftsmen involved in the construction were drawn from the empire. Many also came from other parts of the Islamic world - calligraphers from Shiraz, finial makers from Samrkand, and stone and flower cutters from Bukhara. As if to confirm it, Jahan had these lines inscribed there: "If there is Paradise on earth, it is here, it is here. Paradise it may have been, but it was a pricey paradise.

The money Jahan spent on buildings and on various military projects emptied his treasury and he was forced to raise taxes, which aggravated the people of the empire. Aurangzeb ruled for nearly 50 years. He came to the throne after imprisoning his father and having his older brother killed. Aurangzeb was a very observant and religious Muslim who ended the policy of religious tolerance followed by earlier emperors.

He no longer allowed the Hindu community to live under their own laws and customs, but imposed Sharia law Islamic law over the whole empire. Thousands of Hindu temples and shrines were torn down and a punitive tax on Hindu subjects was re-imposed. In the last decades of the seventeenth century Aurangzeb invaded the Hindu kingdoms in central and southern India, conquering much territory and taking many slaves.

Under Aurangzeb, the Mughal empire reached the peak of its military power, but the rule was unstable. This was partly because of the hostility that Aurangazeb's intolerance and taxation inspired in the population, but also because the empire had simply become to big to be successfully governed. The Muslim Governer of Hydrabad in southern India rebelled and established a separate Shi'a state; he also reintroduced religious toleration.

The Hindu kingdoms also fought back, often supported by the French and the British, who used them to tighten their grip on the sub-continent. The great Mughal city of Calcutta came under the control of the east India company in and in the decades that followed Europeans and European - backed by Hindu princes conquered most of the Mughal territory. Aurangzeb's extremism caused Mughal territory and creativity to dry up and the Empire went into decline.

The last Mughal Emperor was deposed by the British in Search term:. Read more. This page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with style sheets CSS enabled. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets CSS if you are able to do so.

This page has been archived and is no longer updated. Find out more about page archiving. Mughal Empire s, s Last updated The Mughals brought many changes to India: Centralised government that brought together many smaller kingdoms Delegated government with respect for human rights Persian art and culture Persian language mixed with Arabic and Hindi to create Urdu Periods of great religious tolerance A style of architecture e. A later Muslim invasion in devastated the city of Delhi.

Under Babur Hinduism was tolerated and new Hindu temples were built with his permission. Akbar and Godism Akbar took the policy of religious toleration even further by breaking with conventional Islam. Jahangir and Jahan Jahangir Akbar's son, Emperor Jahangir, readopted Islam as the state religion and continued the policy of religious toleration.

Jahan The architectural achievements of the Mughals peaked between and , during the reign of Jahangir's successor Jahan. He was a strong leader, whose conquests expanded the Mughal Empire to its greatest size.

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ARC226 History of Architecture 9.pdf

Phases of Mughal architecture. Mughal architecture 1. Mughal architecture is an amalgamation of Islamic, Persian and Indian architecture. The architecture of the Mughal dynasty reflects their love for poetry, personality and other artistic inclinations. Mughal architecture has its origin in the religion of Islam. The concepts apparent in Islam like power, pleasure and death are reflected in the forts, durbars, mosques, tombs, gardens and so on.

Mughal architecture is an Indo-Islamic architectural style that developed in India under the patronage of the Mughal Empire. Differentiate between the architectural accomplishments under the reigns of Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb. Mughal architecture is the distinctive Indo-Islamic architectural style that developed in northern and central India under the patronage of Mughal emperors from the 16th to the 18th century. It is a remarkably symmetrical and decorative amalgam of Persian, Turkish, and Indian architecture. The Mughals were also renowned for creating exquisite gardens in the Persian charbagh layout, in which the quadrilateral gardens were divided by walkways or flowing water into four smaller parts.

Achievements under Akbar. They made use of red and grey sandstone latticed screens, painted ceilings and coloured tiles. And after Babur, every emperor took great considerable interest in the architecture field. Its massive but graceful structures are decorated with intricate stonework that portrays Hindu themes. Made of red stone on the bank of river Yamuna. It said that in his reign, Hindus and Muslims lived side by side in syncretisic harmony. The capital city of Fatehpur Sikri is one of the most important examples of this type of architecture.

The Art and Architecture of Islamic India Emperor Akbar (r. ) Emperor Jahangir (r. ) Miyan Tansen Singing Mughal, c. Ink and opaque​.

The Art and Architecture of Mughal Emperors Akbar and Jahangir

The Expression of Power in Mughal Architecture. Delhi possesses much of India's finest architecture; it is the heart of Hindustan and holds an immense amount of power as the heart of Hindustan and a vital city during the Mughal Empire. The Mughal period in India was one of the most prolific and dynamic phases of architecture in India, characterized by a remarkable refinement of spatial symmetry and a classic attention to detailing. Contextual knowledge of the city of Delhi and who the Mughals were as rulers and patrons of the arts offers insight into the specific function of architecture in India between and AD. Architecture plays a crucial role in the success of the Mughal dynasty in Delhi as it provided the empire a means through which to assert power over the people and transcend time as rulers.

Mughal dynasty was established after the battle of Panipat in And after Babur, every emperor took great considerable interest in the architecture field. The Mughals were a staunch supporter of art and architecture. They developed Indo-Islamic architecture in the Indian subcontinent.

British Broadcasting Corporation Home. Learn about the Mughal Empire that ruled most of India and Pakistan in the 16th and 17th centuries. It consolidated Islam in South Asia, and spread Muslim and particularly Persian arts and culture as well as the faith. The Mughals were Muslims who ruled a country with a large Hindu majority. However for much of their empire they allowed Hindus to reach senior government or military positions.

Mughal architecture

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Сьюзан плюхнулась обратно в ванну.

Директор метнул на нее настороженный взгляд, но Мидж уже бежала к аппарату. Она решила включить громкую связь. - Слушаю, Джабба. Металлический голос Джаббы заполнил комнату: - Мидж, я в главном банке данных.

 С какой целью. - Танкадо мог посылать фиктивные сообщения на неиспользованный адрес в надежде, что мы его обнаружим и решим, что он обеспечил себе защиту. В таком случае ему не нужно будет передавать пароль кому-то. Возможно, он работал в одиночку. Стратмор хмыкнул.

Вздохнув, она просунула руку в углубление с цифровым замком и ввела свой личный код из пяти цифр. Через несколько секунд двенадцатитонная стальная махина начала поворачиваться. Она попыталась собраться с мыслями, но они упрямо возвращали ее к .

Mughal Empire (1500s, 1600s)

Он потерял равновесие, шатаясь, выскочил на слепящее солнце и прямо перед собой увидел лестницу.

Беккер прикрыл глаза и сжался, раздумывая, сколько времени продлится служба. Выросший в протестантской семье, он всегда считал, что католики ужасно медлительны. Теперь он молил Бога, чтобы священник не торопился, ведь как только служба закончится, он будет вынужден встать, хотя бы для того чтобы пропустить соседей по скамье. А в своем пиджаке он обречен.

Все данные, свидетельствующие о том, кто чем владел, должны были исчезнуть навсегда. Поскольку для одновременного подрыва устройств была необходима точнейшая координация действий, все эти изделия были связаны между собой телефонными линиями через Интернет. Двое суток встроенные часы устройств обменивались бесконечными потоками зашифрованной синхронизирующейся информации. АНБ, перехватывая эти информационные импульсы, игнорировало их, считая аномалией сети, безобидной тарабарщиной.

 - На экране появилось новое окошко.  - Хейл - это… Сьюзан замерла. Должно быть, это какая-то ошибка. Следопыт показывал адрес, не имеющий никакого смысла. Взяв себя в руки, она перечитала сообщение.


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