The Art And Science Of Grand Prix Driving Pdf
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There has never been a faster driver over a single lap - his record of 65 pole positions is unlikely to ever be broken - nor has anyone thought so deeply about it. When he talked about his memorable lap, the one that left the most indelible impression on his exceptional mind, Sennas eyes shone with a faraway look and his voice quavered with intensity
- The art and science of Grand Prix driving by Niki Lauda Read ebook FB2, DJVU, EPUB, AZW, AZW3
- ISBN 13: 9780879380496
- Niki Lauda
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Time to hop on the bandwagon and dust off some Lauda and Hunt books that might see some fresh interest again! On the plus side, there are plenty of closeup engine, chassis, tyre, brake photos of the If you are a Niki Lauda fan, this book is a must.
The art and science of Grand Prix driving by Niki Lauda Read ebook FB2, DJVU, EPUB, AZW, AZW3
He was a three-time F1 World Drivers' Champion , winning in , and , and is the only driver in F1 history to have been champion for both Ferrari and McLaren , the sport's two most successful constructors.
As an aviation entrepreneur, he founded and ran three airlines: Lauda Air , Niki , and Lauda. He was a Bombardier Business Aircraft brand ambassador. He was also a consultant for Scuderia Ferrari and team manager of the Jaguar Formula One racing team for two years. After a couple of years at Brabham and two years' hiatus, Lauda returned and raced four seasons for McLaren between and — during which he won the title by half a point over his teammate Alain Prost.
Niki Lauda was born on 22 February in Vienna , Austria, to a wealthy paper manufacturing family. Lauda became a racing driver despite his family's disapproval. Lauda was quickly promoted to the F1 team, but drove for March in F1 and F2 in Although the F2 cars were good and Lauda's driving skills impressed March principal Robin Herd , March's F1 season was catastrophic.
Lauda took out another bank loan to buy his way into the BRM team in Lauda was instantly quick, but the team was in decline; although the BRM PE was quick and easy to drive it was not reliable and its engine lacked power. Regazzoni spoke so favourably of Lauda that Ferrari promptly signed him, paying him enough to clear his debts. After an unsuccessful start to the s culminating in a disastrous start to the season, Ferrari regrouped completely under Luca di Montezemolo and were resurgent in The team's faith in the little-known Lauda was quickly rewarded by a second-place finish in his debut race for the team, the season-opening Argentine Grand Prix.
Although Lauda became the season's pacesetter, achieving six consecutive pole positions , a mixture of inexperience and mechanical unreliability meant Lauda won only one more race that year, the Dutch GP.
He finished fourth in the Drivers' Championship and demonstrated immense commitment to testing and improving the car. The F1 season started slowly for Lauda; after no better than a fifth-place finish in the first four races, he won four of the next five driving the new Ferrari T.
His first World Championship was confirmed with a third-place finish at the Italian Grand Prix at Monza; Lauda's teammate Regazzoni won the race and Ferrari clinched their first Constructors' Championship in 11 years; Lauda then picked up a fifth win at the last race of the year, the United States GP at Watkins Glen. Lauda did not win the German Grand Prix from pole position there that year; after battling hard with Patrick Depailler for the lead for the first half of the race, Lauda led for the first 9 laps but suffered a puncture at the Wippermann 9 miles into the 10th lap and was passed by Carlos Reutemann , James Hunt , Tom Pryce and Jacques Laffite ; Lauda made it back to the pits with a damaged front wing and a destroyed left front tyre.
The Ferrari pit changed the destroyed tyre and Lauda managed to make it to the podium in 3rd behind Reutemann and Laffite after Hunt retired and Pryce had to slow down because of a fuel leak. Lauda was known for giving away any trophies he won to his local garage in exchange for his car to be washed and serviced. Unlike and despite tensions between Lauda and Montezemolo's successor, Daniele Audetto , Lauda dominated the start of the F1 season , winning four of the first six races and finishing second in the other two.
By the time of his fifth win of the year at the British GP , he had more than double the points of his closest challengers Jody Scheckter and James Hunt , and a second consecutive World Championship appeared a formality. It would be a feat not achieved since Jack Brabham 's victories in and He also looked set to win the most races in a season, a record held by the late Jim Clark since Formula One was quite dangerous at the time three of the drivers that day would later die in Formula One incidents: Tom Pryce in ; Ronnie Peterson in ; and Patrick Depailler in , but a majority of the drivers voted against the boycott and the race went ahead.
On 1 August during the second lap at the very fast left kink before Bergwerk, Lauda was involved in an accident where his Ferrari swerved off the track, hit an embankment, burst into flames, and made contact with Brett Lunger 's Surtees - Ford car. Unlike Lunger, Lauda was trapped in the wreckage. Drivers Arturo Merzario , Lunger, Guy Edwards , and Harald Ertl arrived at the scene a few moments later, but before Merzario was able to pull Lauda from his car, he suffered severe burns to his head and inhaled hot toxic gases that damaged his lungs and blood.
It was unbelievable, how he could do that, and I met him afterwards, and I said, 'How could you do it?! He said, 'Honestly, I do not know, but to open your seatbelt was so difficult, because you were pushing so hard against it, and when it was open, I got you out of the car like a feather Lauda suffered extensive scarring from the burns to his head, losing most of his right ear as well as the hair on the right side of his head, his eyebrows, and his eyelids.
He chose to limit reconstructive surgery to replacing the eyelids and getting them to work properly. After the accident he always wore a cap to cover the scars on his head. He arranged for sponsors to use the cap for advertising. With Lauda out of the contest, Carlos Reutemann was taken on as his replacement.
Lauda missed only two races, appearing at the Monza press conference six weeks after the accident with his fresh burns still bandaged. He finished fourth in the Italian GP , despite being, by his own admission, absolutely petrified.
F1 journalist Nigel Roebuck recalls seeing Lauda in the pits, peeling the blood-soaked bandages off his scarred scalp. He also had to wear a specially adapted crash helmet so as to not be in too much discomfort.
In Lauda's absence, Hunt had mounted a late charge to reduce Lauda's lead in the World Championship standings. Hunt and Lauda were friends away from the circuit, and their personal on-track rivalry, while intense, was cleanly contested and fair. Lauda qualified third, one place behind Hunt, but on race day there was torrential rain and Lauda retired after two laps.
He later said that he felt it was unsafe to continue under these conditions, especially since his eyes were watering excessively because of his fire-damaged tear ducts and inability to blink.
Hunt led much of the race before his tires blistered and a pit stop dropped him down the order. He recovered to third, thus winning the title by a single point. Lauda's previously good relationship with Ferrari was severely affected by his decision to withdraw from the Japanese Grand Prix, and he endured a difficult season , despite easily winning the championship through consistency rather than outright pace. Lauda disliked his new teammate, Reutemann, who had served as his replacement driver.
Lauda was not comfortable with this move and felt he had been let down by Ferrari. It suffered from a variety of troubles that forced Lauda to retire the car 9 out of 14 races. Lauda's best results, apart from the wins in Sweden and Italy after the penalization of Mario Andretti and Gilles Villeneuve, were 2nd in Monaco and Great Britain, and a 3rd in the Netherlands.
The Alfa flat engine was too wide for ground effect designs in that the opposed cylinder banks impeded with the venturi tunnels, so Alfa designed a V12 for It was the fourth cylinder engine design that propelled the Austrian in F1 since Lauda's F1 season was again marred by retirements and poor pace, even though he won the non-championship Dino Ferrari Grand Prix with the Brabham-Alfa.
After that, Brabham returned to the familiar Cosworth V8. In late September, during practice for the Canadian Grand Prix , Lauda cut short a practice session and promptly informed team principal Ecclestone, that he wished to retire immediately, as he had no more desire to "continue the silliness of driving around in circles".
Lauda, who in the meantime had founded Lauda Air, a charter airline, returned to Austria to run the company full-time. Lauda proved he was when, in his third race back, he won the Long Beach Grand Prix. Before the opening race of the season at Kyalami race track in South Africa , Lauda was the organiser of the so-called "drivers' strike"; Lauda had seen that the new Super Licence required the drivers to commit themselves to their present teams and realised that this could hinder a driver's negotiating position.
The drivers, with the exception of Teo Fabi , barricaded themselves in a banqueting suite at Sunnyside Park Hotel until they had won the day. The season proved to be transitional for the McLaren team as they were making a change from Ford - Cosworth engines, to TAG -badged Porsche turbo engines, and Lauda did not win a race that year, with his best finish being second at Long Beach behind his teammate John Watson.
Some political maneuvering by Lauda forced a furious chief designer John Barnard to design an interim car earlier than expected to get the TAG-Porsche engine some much needed race testing; Lauda nearly won the last race of the season in South Africa. Lauda won a third world championship in by half a point over teammate Alain Prost , due only to half points being awarded for the shortened Monaco Grand Prix.
However, during the two seasons together, they had a good relationship and Lauda later said that beating the talented Frenchman was a big motivator for him. Lauda won five races, while Prost won seven. However, Lauda, who set a record for the most pole positions in a season during the season, rarely matched his teammate in qualifying.
Despite this, Lauda's championship win came in Portugal , when he had to start in eleventh place on the grid, while Prost qualified on the front row.
Prost did everything he could, starting from second and winning his seventh race of the season, but Lauda's calculating drive which included setting the fastest race lap , passing car after car, saw him finish second behind his teammate which gave him enough points to win his third title.
However, as it was his last race with Lotus before joining Williams in , Lotus boss Peter Warr refused to give Mansell the brakes he wanted for his car and the Englishman retired with brake failure on lap As Lauda had passed the Toleman of F1 rookie Ayrton Senna for third place only a few laps earlier, Mansell's retirement elevated him to second behind Prost.
The season was a disappointment for Lauda, with eleven retirements from the fourteen races he started. After announcing his impending retirement at the Austrian Grand Prix , he retired for good at the end of that season.
After qualifying 16th, a steady drive saw him leading by lap However, the McLaren's ceramic brakes suffered on the street circuit and he crashed out of the lead at the end of the long Brabham Straight on lap 57 when his brakes finally failed. He was one of only two drivers in the race who had driven in the non-championship Australian Grand Prix , the other being World Champion Keke Rosberg , who won in Adelaide in and would take Lauda's place at McLaren in Lauda's helmet was originally a plain red with his full name written on both sides and the Raiffeisen Bank logo in the chin area.
In , upon his return to McLaren, his helmet was white and featured the red "L" logo of Lauda Air instead of his name on both sides, complete with branding from his personal sponsor Parmalat on the top. From —, the red and white were reversed to evoke memories of his earlier helmet design. In Lauda returned to Formula One in a managerial position when Luca di Montezemolo offered him a consulting role at Ferrari. Halfway through the season Lauda assumed the role of team principal of the Jaguar Formula One team.
The team, however, failed to improve and Lauda was made redundant, together with 70 other key figures, at the end of Lauda returned to running his airline, Lauda Air , on his second Formula One retirement in During his time as airline manager, he was appointed consultant at Ferrari as part of an effort by Montezemolo to rejuvenate the team. In late , he started a new airline, Niki.
He was, however, criticized for calling Robert Kubica a "polacke" an ethnic slur for Polish people. It happened on air in May at the Monaco Grand Prix.
Lauda is sometimes known by the nickname "the rat", "SuperRat" or "King Rat" because of his prominent buck teeth. In the Austrian post office issued a stamp honouring him. The third life Lauda made a cameo appearance at the end of the film. Lauda said of Hunt's death, "When I heard he'd died age 45 of a heart attack I wasn't surprised, I was just sad.
Lauda appeared in an episode of Mayday titled " Niki Lauda: Testing the Limits " regarding the events of Lauda Air Flight , and described running an airline as more difficult than winning three Formula 1 championships.
The name of his mother is Elisabeth. In he married Birgit Wetzinger, a flight attendant for his airline. In , she donated a kidney to Lauda when the kidney he received from his brother in failed. On 2 August it was announced that Lauda had successfully undergone a lung transplant operation in his native Austria.
Lauda spoke fluent Austrian German , English , and Italian. Lauda came from a Roman Catholic family. In an interview with Zeit he stated that he left the church for a time to avoid paying church taxes , but went back when he had his two children baptised.
ISBN 13: 9780879380496
He retired from Formula One at the end of after 15 seasons in motorsport's top echelon that yielded 13 race wins. While Coulthard has driven in promotional events this year - something he said gives him "exactly the same feeling of adrenalin" as he got at a Grand Prix weekend - he has not raced since the Brazilian Grand Prix in November last year. I prefer to make that decision," he said. I still feel like a racer in my heart and there have been many times this year when I wished I was out on track. I'm not too old to race other things. It could be sports cars. If there's an opportunity, so be it, but I've got other things [to do].
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Но не искалеченная рука привлекла внимание Беккера. Он увидел кое-что другое. И повернулся к офицеру.
Голос Фонтейна по-прежнему звучал спокойно, деловито: - Можете ли вы его остановить. Джабба тяжко вздохнул и повернулся к экрану. - Не знаю. Все зависит от того, что ударило в голову автору.
Вызовите мне машину. Мужчина достал мобильник, сказал несколько слов и выключил телефон.
Я вас знаю. На такой риск вы не пойдете. Сьюзан было запротестовала, но Стратмор не дал ей говорить. - Вы меня не знаете, молодой человек.
Он рассчитывал, сидя в испанском баре, услышать по Си-эн-эн пресс-конференцию об американском сверхсекретном компьютере, способном взломать любые шифры. После этого он позвонил бы Стратмору, считал пароль с кольца на своем пальце и в последнюю минуту спас главный банк данных АНБ. Вдоволь посмеявшись, он исчез бы насовсем, превратившись в легенду Фонда электронных границ. Сьюзан стукнула кулаком по столу: - Нам необходимо это кольцо. Ведь на нем - единственный экземпляр ключа! - Теперь она понимала, что нет никакой Северной Дакоты, как нет и копии ключа.
Сьюзан, - сказал. - Дай мне двадцать минут, чтобы уничтожить файлы лаборатории систем безопасности. После этого я сразу перейду к своему терминалу и выключу ТРАНСТЕКСТ. - Давайте скорее, - сказала Сьюзан, пытаясь что-нибудь разглядеть сквозь тяжелую стеклянную дверь. Она знала, что, пока ТРАНСТЕКСТ будет продолжать сжирать аварийное питание, она останется запертой в Третьем узле.
Беккер расхохотался. Он дожил до тридцати пяти лет, а сердце у него прыгало, как у влюбленного мальчишки. Никогда еще его не влекло ни к одной женщине.