control and interaction of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems in anuran amphibians pdf

Control And Interaction Of The Cardiovascular And Respiratory Systems In Anuran Amphibians Pdf

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Metrics details. Amphibian declines and extinctions are emblematic for the current sixth mass extinction event. Infectious drivers of these declines include the recently emerged fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans Chytridiomycota.

Amphibian chytridiomycosis: a review with focus on fungus-host interactions

Spectral amplitude density from two lungfish L. Changes in the heart rate in L. The effect of autonomic modulation of HRV on mean oxygen uptake per breath in L. The rostrocaudal distribution of cell bodies of VPN in the brainstem of L. Morphometric variables in the ultrastructure of transverse sections of the cardiac branches of the vagus nerve in L. The present study has revealed that the lungfish has both structural and functional features of its system for physiological control of heart rate, previously considered solely mammalian, that together generate variability HRV. Ultrastructural and electrophysiological investigation revealed that the nerves connecting the brain to the heart are myelinated, conferring rapid conduction velocities, comparable to mammalian fibers that generate instantaneous changes in heart rate at the onset of each air breath.

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Beat-to-beat variation in heart rate f H has been used as a tool for elucidating the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation of the heart. A portion of the temporal changes in f H is evidenced by a respiratory influence cardiorespiratory interaction on heart rate variability HRV with heartbeats increasing and decreasing within a respiratory cycle. Nevertheless, little is known about respiratory effects on HRV in lower vertebrates.

Modern amphibians are characterized by the flexibility of their gaseous exchange mechanisms. Amphibian skin is moistened by mucous secretions and is well supplied with blood vessels. It is used for respiration to varying degrees. When lungs are present, carbon dioxide may pass out of the body across the skin, but in some salamanders there are no lungs and all respiratory exchanges occur via the skin. Even in such animals as frogs , it seems that oxygen can be taken up at times by the skin, under water for example.


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The system can't perform the operation now. Try again later. Citations per year. Duplicate citations. The following articles are merged in Scholar.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Wang and M.

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