the natural and modified history of congenital heart disease pdf

The Natural And Modified History Of Congenital Heart Disease Pdf

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This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of CHD s in the population of dogs recruited in a single referral center RC ; compare the epidemiological features of CHD s in screened breeds Boxers versus non-screened French and English Bulldogs, German Shepherds ; investigate the association of breeds with the prevalence of CHD s ; determine the popularity and volatility of breeds over a year period; analysed the trends of the most popular breeds in the overall population of new-born dogs registered in the Italian Kennel Club IKC from 1st January to 31st December Descriptive statistics and frequencies regarding the most representative breeds and CHD s were generated.

Neonatal Heart Disease pp Cite as. The care of children with congenital heart defects has undergone remarkable change during the past 30 years. The diagnosis of structural characteristics and hemodynamic effects of cardiac malformations has become more precise as a result of the advances in basic science and technology which have improved methods of investigation.

This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables. This monograph presents a comprehensive survey of the medical and surgical literature on various forms of atrial septal defect. The embryology, pathology, and physiology are considered briefly, and then an extensive and detailed analysis of two groups of cases is presented.

Atrial Septal Defect: An Investigation into the Natural History of a Congenital Heart Disease

Cardiovascular disease CVD is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. The underlying mechanisms vary depending on the disease.

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide except Africa. There are many cardiovascular diseases involving the blood vessels. They are known as vascular diseases. There are many risk factors for heart diseases: age, sex, tobacco use, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, obesity, genetic predisposition and family history of cardiovascular disease, raised blood pressure hypertension , raised blood sugar diabetes mellitus , raised blood cholesterol hyperlipidemia , undiagnosed celiac disease , psychosocial factors, poverty and low educational status, and air pollution.

Genetic factors influence the development of cardiovascular disease in men who are less than 55 years old and in women who are less than 65 years old. Age is the most important risk factor in developing cardiovascular or heart diseases, with approximately a tripling of risk with each decade of life.

One of them relates to serum cholesterol level. In men, this increase levels off around age 45 to 50 years. In women, the increase continues sharply until age 60 to 65 years. Aging is also associated with changes in the mechanical and structural properties of the vascular wall, which leads to the loss of arterial elasticity and reduced arterial compliance and may subsequently lead to coronary artery disease.

Men are at greater risk of heart disease than pre-menopausal women. Coronary heart diseases are 2 to 5 times more common among middle-aged men than women. Estrogen may have protective effects on glucose metabolism and hemostatic system, and may have direct effect in improving endothelial cell function.

Among men and women, there are differences in body weight, height, body fat distribution, heart rate, stroke volume, and arterial compliance. Cigarettes are the major form of smoked tobacco.

Insufficient physical activity defined as less than 5 x 30 minutes of moderate activity per week, or less than 3 x 20 minutes of vigorous activity per week is currently the fourth leading risk factor for mortality worldwide. These effects may, at least in part, explain its cardiovascular benefits. High dietary intakes of saturated fat, trans-fats and salt, and low intake of fruits, vegetables and fish are linked to cardiovascular risk, although whether all these associations indicate causes is disputed.

The World Health Organization attributes approximately 1. The relationship between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease is complex, and may depend on the amount of alcohol consumed. Untreated celiac disease can cause the development of many types of cardiovascular diseases, most of which improve or resolve with a gluten-free diet and intestinal healing.

However, delays in recognition and diagnosis of celiac disease can cause irreversible heart damage. Sleep disorders such as sleep disordered breathing and insomnia , as well as particularly short duration of sleep or particularly long duration of sleep, have been found to be associated with a higher cardiometabolic risk.

Cardiovascular disease affects low- and middle-income countries even more than high-income countries. Psychosocial factors, environmental exposures, health behaviours, and health-care access and quality contribute to socio-economic differentials in cardiovascular disease.

Particulate matter has been studied for its short- and long-term exposure effects on cardiovascular disease. Currently, airborne particles under 2.

Overall, long-term PM exposure increased rate of atherosclerosis and inflammation. Existing cardiovascular disease or a previous cardiovascular event, such as a heart attack or stroke, is the strongest predictor of a future cardiovascular event.

They include family history, coronary artery calcification score, high sensitivity C-reactive protein hs-CRP , ankle—brachial pressure index , lipoprotein subclasses and particle concentration, lipoprotein a , apolipoproteins A-I and B, fibrinogen , white blood cell count, homocysteine , N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide NT-proBNP , and markers of kidney function. There is evidence that mental health problems, in particular depression and traumatic stress, is linked to cardiovascular diseases.

Whereas mental health problems are known to be associated with risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as smoking, poor diet, and a sedentary lifestyle, these factors alone do not explain the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases seen in depression, stress, and anxiety. Little is known about the relationship between work and cardiovascular disease, but links have been established between certain toxins, extreme heat and cold, exposure to tobacco smoke, and mental health concerns such as stress and depression.

A SBU-report looking at non-chemical factors found an association for those: [62]. Specifically the risk of stroke was also increased by exposure to ionizing radiation. A SBU report found evidence that workplace exposure to silica dust , engine exhaust or welding fumes is associated with heart disease.

Workplace exposure to silica dust or asbestos is also associated with pulmonary heart disease. There is evidence that workplace exposure to lead, carbon disulphide, phenoxyacids containing TCDD, as well as working in an environment where aluminum is being electrolytically produced, is associated with stroke.

As of , evidence suggests that certain leukemia -associated mutations in blood cells may also lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several large-scale research projects looking at human genetic data have found a robust link between the presence of these mutations, a condition known as clonal hematopoiesis , and cardiovascular disease-related incidents and mortality. Radiation treatments for cancer can increase the risk of heart disease and death as observed in previous breast RT regimens.

Radiation-induced fibrosis, vascular cell damage and oxidative stress can lead to these and other late side-effect symptoms. Population-based studies show that atherosclerosis, the major precursor of cardiovascular disease, begins in childhood.

The Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth PDAY study demonstrated that intimal lesions appear in all the aortas and more than half of the right coronary arteries of youths aged 7—9 years. This is extremely important considering that 1 in 3 people die from complications attributable to atherosclerosis. In order to stem the tide, education and awareness that cardiovascular disease poses the greatest threat, and measures to prevent or reverse this disease must be taken.

Obesity and diabetes mellitus are often linked to cardiovascular disease, [70] as are a history of chronic kidney disease and hypercholesterolaemia. Screening ECGs either at rest or with exercise are not recommended in those without symptoms who are at low risk. The NIH recommends lipid testing in children beginning at the age of 2 if there is a family history of heart disease or lipid problems. Screening and selection for primary prevention interventions has traditionally been done through absolute risk using a variety of scores ex.

Framingham or Reynolds risk scores. The number and variety of risk scores available for use has multiplied, but their efficacy according to a review was unclear due to lack of external validation or impact analysis. Most guidelines recommend combining preventive strategies. A Cochrane Review found some evidence that interventions aiming to reduce more than one cardiovascular risk factor may have beneficial effects on blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference; however, evidence was limited and the authors were unable to draw firm conclusions on the effects on cardiovascular events and mortality.

It is unclear whether or not dental care in those with periodontitis affects their risk of cardiovascular disease. A diet high in fruits and vegetables decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Worldwide, dietary guidelines recommend a reduction in saturated fat , [] and although the role of dietary fat in cardiovascular disease is complex and controversial there is a long-standing consensus that replacing saturated fat with unsaturated fat in the diet is sound medical advice.

A Cochrane review found unclear benefit of recommending a low-salt diet in people with high or normal blood pressure. Blood pressure medication reduces cardiovascular disease in people at risk, [97] irrespective of age, [] the baseline level of cardiovascular risk, [] or baseline blood pressure. Statins are effective in preventing further cardiovascular disease in people with a history of cardiovascular disease. Anti-diabetic medication may reduce cardiovascular risk in people with Type 2 Diabetes, although evidence is not conclusive.

Aspirin has been found to be of only modest benefit in those at low risk of heart disease as the risk of serious bleeding is almost equal to the benefit with respect to cardiovascular problems. The use of vasoactive agents for people with pulmonary hypertension with left heart disease or hypoxemic lung diseases may cause harm and unnecessary expense. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation following a heart attack reduces the risk of death from cardiovascular disease and leads to less hospitalizations.

A Cochrane review found some evidence that yoga has beneficial effects on blood pressure and cholesterol, but studies included in this review were of low quality. While a healthy diet is beneficial, the effect of antioxidant supplementation vitamin E , vitamin C , etc. Cardiovascular disease is treatable with initial treatment primarily focused on diet and lifestyle interventions. Proper CVD management necessitates a focus on MI and stroke cases due to their combined high mortality rate, keeping in mind the cost-effectiveness of any intervention, especially in developing countries with low or middle-income levels.

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide and in all regions except Africa. It is also estimated that by , over 23 million people will die from cardiovascular diseases each year. This may be secondary to a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Organizations such as the Indian Heart Association are working with the World Heart Federation to raise awareness about this issue. There is evidence that cardiovascular disease existed in pre-history, [] and research into cardiovascular disease dates from at least the 18th century.

Recent areas of research include the link between inflammation and atherosclerosis [] the potential for novel therapeutic interventions, [] and the genetics of coronary heart disease. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. See also: Cardiovascular disease in women. See also: Lipid hypothesis , Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease , and Salt and cardiovascular disease. Main article: Occupational cardiovascular disease.

See also: Timeline of cardiovascular disease. January Archived PDF from the original on August The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Bibcode : PLoSO September Health Technology Assessment. Archived from the original on World Health Organization. Retrieved Nov 11, Current Atherosclerosis Reports. World Journal of Cardiology Review.

October Nature Genetics. International Journal of Cardiology. International Journal of Endocrinology. American Heart Association.

Atrial Septal Defect: An Investigation into the Natural History of a Congenital Heart Disease

My 4-year-old daughter was recently diagnosed with a hole in her heart. It is called an atrial septal defect. We were told that it should be closed. I heard that there is a new way to close the hole without having surgery. Can this be done any way other than with surgery? My older son had a patent ductus arteriosus surgically repaired 10 years ago when he was 1 year old. Could his patent ductus arteriosus have been closed by this new method that does not require surgery?

The journal, published since , is the official publication of the Spanish Society of Cardiology and founder of the REC Publications journal family. Articles are published in both English an Spanish in its electronic edition. The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two receding years. CiteScore measures average citations received per document published. Read more.

Congenital heart diseases in a reference service: clinical evolution and associated illnesses. Mailing address. Knowing these changes is important to a better health care. Moreover, their charts were reviewed in order to detail heart diseases, procedures and echocardiography. The mean age at diagnosis was Ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus and tetralogy of Fallot were the most prevalent CHD. Regarding development,

Atrial Septal Defect: An Investigation into the Natural History of a Congenital Heart Disease

Cardiovascular disease CVD is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. The underlying mechanisms vary depending on the disease. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide except Africa. There are many cardiovascular diseases involving the blood vessels.

About , people in the United States have a heart attack each year. Heart disease is considered one of the top preventable causes of death in the United States. Some genetic factors can contribute, but the disease is largely attributed to poor lifestyle habits. Among these are poor diet, lack of regular exercise, tobacco smoking, alcohol or drug abuse, and high stress. Has this disease always plagued the human race or is our modern lifestyle to blame?

Несмотря на солидный заработок, Танкадо ездил на службу на стареньком мопеде и обедал в одиночестве за своим рабочим столом, вместо того чтобы вместе с сослуживцами поглощать котлеты из телятины и луковый суп с картофелем - фирменные блюда местной столовой. Энсей пользовался всеобщим уважением, работал творчески, с блеском, что дано немногим. Он был добрым и честным, выдержанным и безукоризненным в общении. Самым главным для него была моральная чистота.

Он ничего не сказал о том, что поменялся с тобой дежурством.

 Вирус? - снисходительно хмыкнул Стратмор, - Фил, я высоко ценю твою бдительность, очень высоко. Но мы с мисс Флетчер проводим диагностику особого рода. Это файл высочайшей сложности. Я должен был тебя предупредить, но не знал, что сегодня твое дежурство.

Не знал он только одного - что в его планы вмешается судьба. В феврале того года, когда Энсею исполнилось двенадцать, его приемным родителям позвонили из токийской фирмы, производящей компьютеры, и предложили их сыну-калеке принять участие в испытаниях новой клавиатуры, которую фирма сконструировала для детей с физическими недостатками. Родители согласились. Хотя Энсей Танкадо никогда прежде не видел компьютера, он как будто инстинктивно знал, как с ним обращаться. Компьютер открыл перед ним мир, о существовании которого он даже не подозревал, и вскоре заполнил всю его жизнь.

Etiology of Congenital Heart Disease

Но ему хватило одного взгляда, чтобы понять: никакая это не диагностика.

Боже. Такой жирный. Крикливый, тучный, мерзкий немец! - Клушар заморгал, стараясь переменить положение, и, не обращая внимания на боль, продолжал: - Ну чистая скотина, килограмм сто двадцать, не меньше. Он вцепился в эту красотку так, словно боялся, что она сбежит, - и я бы ее отлично понял. Ей-ей.

Беккер понял, что с каждой минутой дело все больше запутывается. - С подружкой. Немец был не. Клушар кивнул: - Со спутницей.

Etiology of Congenital Heart Disease


Ava C.

Exhaustive in its scope, this book provides a comprehensive study of the natural and modified history of congenital heart disease. Focusing.


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