psychology the science of mind and behaviour mcgraw hill pdf

Psychology The Science Of Mind And Behaviour Mcgraw Hill Pdf

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Published: 17.05.2021

Michael W. Passer, Ph.

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Psychology

Psychology holds an exceptional position among the sciences. Yet even after years as an independent discipline, psychology is still struggling with its most basic foundations. Its key phenomena, mind and behaviour, are poorly defined and their definition instead often delegated to neuroscience or philosophy while specific terms and constructs proliferate. It shows that adequate explorations of such diverse kinds of phenomena and their interrelations with the most elusive of all—immediate experience—inherently require a plurality of epistemologies, paradigms, theories, methodologies and methods that complement those developed for the natural sciences.

Finally, the article introduces paradigmatic frameworks that can provide solid foundations for conceptual integration and new developments. Psychology holds an exceptional position among the sciences—not least because it explores the very means by which any science is made, for it is humans who perceive, conceive, define, investigate, analyse and interpret the phenomena of the world.

Yet, psychology is still struggling with its most basic foundations. The phenomena of our personal experience, directly accessible to everyone in each waking moment of life, remain challenging objects of research. Moreover, psychical phenomena are essential for all sciences e. But why are we struggling to scientifically explore the means needed to first make any science? Given the successes in other fields, is this not a contradiction in itself? What then is psychology as opposed to neuroscience?

All this leaves one wonder what psychology is actually about. As if to compensate the unsatisfactory definitional and conceptual status of its key phenomena in general, psychology is plagued with a chaotic proliferation of terms and constructs for specific phenomena of mind and behaviour Zagaria et al. This entails that different terms can denote the same concept jangle-fallacies; Kelley and the same terms different concepts jingle-fallacies; Thorndike Even more basically, many psychologists struggle to explain what their most frequent study phenomena—constructs—actually are Slaney and Garcia These deficiencies and inconsistencies involve a deeply fragmented theoretical landscape.

Like no other science, psychology embraces an enormous diversity of established epistemologies, paradigms, theories, methodologies and methods. The lack of a unified theory in psychology is widely lamented. Such integrative systems merely provide important overviews of the essential plurality of research perspectives and methodologies needed in the field Fahrenberg ; Uher b.

Zagaria and colleagues suggested evolutionary psychology could provide the much-needed paradigmatic framework. Crucially, the possibilities for implementing particular research practices are not a matter of scientific discipline or their ascribed level of scientificity but solely depend on the particular study phenomena and their properties Uher For study phenomena that are highly context-dependent and continuously changing in themselves, such as those of mind, behaviour and society, old knowledge cannot have continuing relevance as this is the case for e.

Instead, accurate and valid investigations require that concepts, theories and methods must be continuously adapted as well Uher b. But methods are just a means to an end. Experience is elementary to all empirical sciences, which are experience-based by definition from Greek empeiria meaning experience.

This entails two fundamental ways in which experience is treated in the sciences Wundt a. Natural sciences explore the objective contents mediated by experience that can be obtained by subtracting from the concrete experience the subjective aspects always contained in it. Hence, natural scientists consider the objects of experience in their properties as conceived independently of the subjects experiencing them, using the perspective of mediate experience mittelbare Erfahrung; Wundt a.

Therefore, natural scientists develop theories, approaches and technologies that help minimise the involvement of human perceptual and conceptual abilities in research processes and filter out their effects on research outcomes. This involves the perspective of immediate experience unmittelbare Erfahrung , with immediate indicating absence of other phenomena mediating their perception Wundt a. Immediate experience comprises connected processes, whereby every process has an objective content but is, at the same time, also a subjective process.

That is, psychology deals with the entire experience in its immediate subjective reality. The inherent relation to the perceiving and experiencing subject— subject reference —is therefore a fundamental category in psychology. Subjects are feeling and thinking beings capable of intentional action who pursue purposes and values. This entails agency, volition, value orientation and teleology. As a consequence, Wundt highlighted, research on these phenomena can determine only law-like generalisations that allow for exceptions and singularities Fahrenberg The processual and transient nature of immediate experience and many behaviours imposes further challenges because, of processual entities, only a part exists at any moment Whitehead Experiential phenomena can therefore be conceived only through generalisation and abstraction from their occurrences over time, leading to concepts, beliefs and knowledge about them , which are psychical phenomena in themselves as well but different from those they are about reflected in the terms experien cing versus experien ce ; Erleben versus Erfahrung; Uher b , a.

Abstract concepts, because they are theoretically constructed, are called constructs Kelly All humans implicitly develop constructs through abduction, see below to describe and explain regularities they observe in themselves and their world.

They use constructs to anticipate the unknown future and to choose among alterative actions and responses Kelly ; Valsiner Therefore, psychologists cannot invent scientific terms and concepts that are completely unrelated to those of everyday psychology as natural scientists can do Uher b.

This may explain the proliferation of terms and concepts and the lack of clear definitions of key phenomena in scientific psychology. Constructs and language-based methods entail further challenges.

The construal of constructs allowed scientists to turn abstract ideas into entities, thereby making them conceptually accessible to empirical study. But this entification misguides psychologists to overlook their constructed nature Slaney and Garcia by ascribing to constructs an ontological status e.

Wundt conceived the natural sciences Naturwissenschaften; e. By exploring the universal forms of immediate experience and the regularities of their connections, psychology is also the foundation of the intellectual sciences Geisteswissenschaften, commonly mis translated as humanities; e. Psychology also provides foundations for the cultural and social sciences Kultur- und Sozialwissenschaften; e. No other science explores such a diversity of study phenomena. Their exploration requires a plurality of epistemologies, methodologies and methods, which include experimental and technology-based investigations e.

All this shows that psychology cannot be a unitary science. Adequate explorations of so many different kinds of phenomena and their interrelations with the most elusive of all—immediate experience—inherently require a plurality of epistemologies, paradigms, theories, methodologies and methods that complement those developed for the natural sciences, which are needed as well.

Immediate experience, given its subjective, processual, context-dependent, and thus ever-changing nature, is always unique and unprecedented. In abduction, scientists infer from observations of surprising facts backwards to a possible theory that, if it were true, could explain the facts observed Peirce ; CP 7. Abduction leads to the creation of new general knowledge, in which theory and data are circularly connected in an open-ended cycle, allowing to further generalise, extend and differentiate the new knowledge created.

By generalising from what was once and at another time as well, idiographic approaches form the basis of nomothetic approaches, which are aimed at identifying generalities common to all particulars of a class and at deriving theories or laws to account for these generalities. This Wundtian approach to nomothetic research, because it is case-by-case based , allows to create generalised knowledge about psychical processes and functioning, thus building a bridge between the individual and theory development Lamiell ; Robinson ; Salvatore and Valsiner But beliefs in the superiority of natural-science principles misled many psychologists to interpret nomothetic strategies solely in terms of the Galtonian methodology, in which many cases are aggregated and statistically analysed on the sample-level.

This limits research to group-level hypothesis testing and theory development to inductive generalisation, which are uninformative about single cases and cannot reveal what is, indeed, common to all Lamiell ; Robinson This entails numerous fallacies, such as the widespread belief between-individual structures would be identical to and even reflect within-individual structures Molenaar ; Uher d.

That is, blind adherence to natural-science principles has not advanced but, instead, substantially impeded the development of psychology as a science. Psychology can, however, capitalise on its exceptional constellation of intersections with other sciences and philosophy that arises from its unique focus on the individual.

Although challenging, this constitutes a rich source for perspective-taking and stimulation of new developments that can meaningfully complement and expand its own genuine achievements as shown in the paradigm outlined now. The Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals TPS-Paradigm Footnote 1 is targeted toward making explicit and scrutinising the most basic assumptions that different disciplines make about research on individuals to help scientists critically reflect on; discuss and refine their theories and practices; and to derive ideas for new developments therefore philosophy-of—science.

It comprises a system of interrelated philosophical, metatheoretical and methodological frameworks that coherently build upon each other therefore paradigm. In these frameworks, concepts from various lines of thought, both historical and more recent, and from different disciplines e. The philosophical framework specifies three sets of presuppositions that are made in the TPS-Paradigm about the nature and properties of individuals and the phenomena studied in relations to them as well as about the notions by which knowledge about them can be gained.

This entails risks for particular fallacies of the human mind e. Scientists researching individuals face particular challenges because they are individuals themselves, thus inseparable from their research objects.

Individuals are complex living organisms , which can be conceived as open dissipative and nested systems.

On each hierarchical level, they function as organised wholes from which new properties emerge not predictable from their constituents and that can feed back to the constituents from which they emerge, causing complex patterns of upward and downward causation. With increasing levels of organisation, ever more complex systems emerge that are less rule-bound, highly adaptive and historically unique. Therefore, dissecting systems into elements cannot reveal the processes governing their functioning and development as a whole; assumptions on universal determinism and reductionism must be rejected.

Relevant concepts from thermodynamics, physics of life, philosophy, theoretical biology, medicine, psychology, sociology and other fields e. The concept of complementarity is applied to highlight that, by using different methods, ostensibly incompatible information can be obtained about properties of the same object of research that are nevertheless all equally essential for an exhaustive account of it and that may therefore be regarded as complementary to one another.

The particular constellations of their forms in given phenomena were used to metatheoretically define and differentiate from one another various kinds of phenomena studied in relation to individuals: morphology, physiology, behaviour, psyche, semiotic representations e. These metatheoretical concepts allowed to integrate and further develop established concepts from various fields to elaborate the peculiarities of the phenomena of the psyche Footnote 2 and their functional connections with other phenomena e.

The semiotic representations concept emphasised the composite nature of language, comprising psychical and physical phenomena, thus both internal and external phenomena. The metatheoretical framework is systematically linked to the methodological framework featuring three main areas.

General concepts of phenomenon-methodology matching. The three metatheoretical properties were used to derive implications for research methodology, leading to new concepts that help to identify fallacies and mismatches e.

Methodological concepts for comparing individuals within and across situations, groups and species were developed Uher e. Various novel approaches, especially behavioural ones, were developed to systematically test and complement the widely-used lexical models derived from everyday language Uher b , c , d , b , c.

Theories and practices of data generation and measurement from psychology, social sciences and metrology, the science of measurement and foundational to the physical sciences, were scrutinised and compared. These transdisciplinary analyses identified two basic methodological principles of measurement underlying metrological concepts that are also applicable to psychological and social-science research data generation traceability, numerical traceability; Uher b.

Empirical demonstrations of these developments and analyses in various empirical studies involving humans of different sociolinguistic backgrounds as well as several nonhuman primate species e. Grounded in established concepts from various disciplines, it offers many possibilities for fruitful cross-scientific collaborations waiting to be explored in order to advance the fascinating science of individuals.

Alexandrova, A. Is construct validation valid? Philosophy of Science, 83 5 , — Bohr, N. Causality and complementarity. Philosophy of Science, 4 3 , — Brody, N. Journal of Philosophy, 66 4 , 97— Capra, F. The web of life: A new synthesis of mind and matter.

Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behaviour, 4e

National Library of Australia. Search the catalogue for collection items held by the National Library of Australia. Passer, Michael W. Psychology : the science of mind and behaviour. Passer, Ronald E. Mind and behaviour is a fascinating area of study.

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Psychology: the science of mind and behavior imparts students with a scientific understanding of the field of psychology while showing them the impact on their day-to-day existence. A simple conceptual framework within the text emphasizes relations between biological, psychological, and environmental levels of analysis and portrays the focus of modern psychology. Scholastic assessment or g? The relationship between the scholastic assessment test and general cognitive ability. Psychological Science, 15 6 , Two earlier. Editions for Psychology: The Science Of Mind And Behaviour: X Paperback published in , Paperback published in , Psychology - Psychology - Linking mind, brain, and behaviour: Late in the 20th century, methods for observing the activity of the living brain were developed that made it possible to explore links between what the brain is doing and psychological phenomena, thus opening a window into the relationship between the mind, brain, and behaviour.


Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Psychology: the science of mind and behavior/Michael W. Passer.


EBOOK: Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behaviour, 4E

Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior imparts students with a scientific understanding of the field of psychology while showing them the impact on their day-to-day existence. A simple conceptual framework within the text emphasizes relations between biological, psychological, and environmental levels of analysis and portrays the focus of modern psychology. Through a variety of features, the text challenges students to think critically about psychology as a science and its impact on their lives. To help students study more effectively and efficiently, a groundbreaking adaptive questioning diagnostic and personalized study plan help students "know what they know" while guiding them to master these concepts through engaging interactivities, exercises, and readings. Now available with Connect Psychology, Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior follows the science behind psychology, leading students through the process of critical examination.

Book information

Psychology is the study of mind and behavior. It encompasses the biological influences, social pressures, and environmental factors that affect how people think, act, and feel. Gaining a richer and deeper understanding of psychology can help people achieve insights into their own actions as well as a better understanding of other people. Psychology is a broad and diverse field that encompasses the study of human thought, behavior, development, personality, emotion, motivation, and more. As a result, some different subfields and specialty areas have emerged. The following are some of the major areas of research and application within psychology:. The most obvious application for psychology is in the field of mental health where psychologists use principles, research, and clinical findings to help clients manage and overcome symptoms of mental distress and psychological illness.

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Psychology,the science of mind and behaviour (5th edition)

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