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- Neuro-linguistic programming
- The Structure of Magic: A Book About Language and Therapy v. 1
- A Pragmatic Guide To Communication & Change.pdf - NLP Info Centre
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Accueil Contact. Download ebook The structure of magic. Steel and silk. Originally published:
When we process information internally, we can do it visually, auditorily, kinesthetically, olfactorily, or gustatorily. As you read the word "circus," you may know what it means by seeing images of circus rings, elephants, or trapeze artists; by hearing carnival music; by feeling excited; or by smelling and tasting popcorn or cotton candy.
It is possible to access the meaning of a word in any one, or any combination, of the five sensory channels. Bandler and Grinder have observed that people move their eyes in systematic directions, depending upon the kind of thinking they are doing. These movements are called eye accessing cues. The chart left ind icates the kind of processing most people do when moving their eyes in a particular direction.
A small percentage of individuals are "reversed," that is, they move their eyes in a mirror image of this chart. Eye accessing cues are discussed in chapter I of Frogs into Princes, and an in-depth discussion of how this information can be used appears in Neuro-Linguistic Programming, Volume I. This chart is easiest to use if you simply superimpose it over someone's face, so that as you see her looking in a particular direction you can also visualize the label for that eye accessing cue.
Visual remembered: seeing images of things seen before, in the way they were seen before. Sample questions that usually elicit this kind of processing include: "What color are your mother's eyes? Questions that usually elicit this kind of processing include: "What would an orange hippopotamus with purple spots look like?
Questions that usually elicit this kind of processing include: "What's the last thing I said? Questions that tend to elicit this kind of processing include: "What would the sound of clapping turning into the sound of birds singing sound like? Questions that tend to elicit this kind of processing include: "Say something to yourself that you often say to yourself. Questions to elicit this kind of processing include: "What does it feel like to be happy?
Erickson, M. Using this "Milton-Model" is a prerequisite to effective hypnotic communication, and all of the induction examples in this book have used these language patterns. Many readers will unconsciously begin to learn the hypnotic language patterns by reading the many examples of inductions in this book. This appendix makes these patterns more explicit, so that you can practice using one pattern at a time, in order to systematically incorporate them all into your behavior.
The Meta-Model is a set of language patterns that can be used to specify experience more fully. In contrast, the Milton-Model provides the user with ways of being "artfully vague. The Meta-Model pro vides ways of recovering specific information that is deleted in any sentence; the Milton-Model provides ways of constructing sentences in which almost all specific information is deleted.
This requires the listener to fill in the deletions from her own unique internal experience. The Meta-Model can be conveniently divided into three chunks: A. Gathering Information, B. Semantic Ill-formedness, and C. Limits of the Speaker's Model. Gathering InformationAs part of the Milton-Model, this chunk is called Deleting Information, and is the most useful of the three chunks for hypnotic purposes The four sub-categories follow. The test for a nominalization is "Can you put it in a wheelbarrow?
Words like curiosity, hypnosis, learnings, love, etc. They are used as nouns, but they are actually process words. Whenever a nominalization is used, much information is deleted If I say "Emily has a lot of know ledge," I've deleted what exactly she knows and how she knows it.
Nominalizations are very effective in hypnotic inductions because they allow the speaker to be vague and require the listener to search through her experience for the most appropriate meaning. Milton Erickson's inductions are filled with them.
In the following example, the nominalizations are in italics: "I know that you have a certain difficulty in your life that you would like to bring to a satisfactory resolution. By using nominalizations, the hypnotist can provide useful instructions without running the risk of saying something that runs counter to the listener's internal experience.
No verb is completely specified, but verbs can be more or less specified. If a hypnotist uses relatively unspecified verbs, the listener is again forced to supply the meaning in order to understand the sentence. Words like do, fix, solve, move, change, wonder, think, sense, know, experience, understand, remember, become aware of, etc.
The sentence "I think this is true" is less specified than "I feel this is true. If I say "I want you to learn," I am using a very unspecified verb, since I'm not explaining how I want you to learn, or what specifically I want you to learn about what.
This means that the noun being talked about is not specified. This category refers to sentences in which a major noun phrase is completely missing.
For example "I know you are curious. The listener does not know what he is supposedly curious about. Again, the listener can fill in the blanks with whatever is relevant in her experience. Semantic Ill-formedness1 Causal Modeling, or Linkage.
Using words that imply a causeeffect relationship between something that is occuring and something the communicator wants to occur invites the listener to respond as if one thing did indeed "cause" the other.
There are three kinds of linkage, with varying degrees of strength. Words such as makes, causes, forces, and requires can be used here. The communicator will be most effective if she begins with the weakest form of linkage and gradually moves to a stronger form. These forms of linkage work by implying or stating that what is occurring will cause something else to occur, and by making a gradual transition for the listener between what is occurring and some other experience.
Chapters I and II of this book contain more detailed descriptions of the use of causal modeling. Acting as if you know the internal experience of another person can be an effective tool to build the credibility of the hypnotist as long as the mind-reading makes use of generalized language patterns.
If the mind-reading is too specific, the communicator runs the risk of saying something counter to the listener's experience, and thereby losing rapport. Evaluative statements in which the person making the evaluation is missing lost from the sentence are called Lost Performatives. Statements using lost performatives can be an effective way of delivering presuppositions, as in the examples which follow. Its two categories can be used to limit the listener's model in ways that produce trance as well as other outcomes.
Words such as all, every, always, never, nobody, etc. These words usually indicate overgeneralization. Modal operators are words such as should, must, have to, can't, won't, etc.
Additional Milton-Model PatternsIn addition to the inverse Meta-Model patterns, the Milton-Model includes a number of other important language patterns. The most important of these is the use of presuppositions. PresuppositionsThe way to determine what is presupposed and not open to question in a sentence is to negate the sentence and find out what is still true. The simplest kind of presupposition is existence. In the sentence "Jack ate the food" it is presupposed that "Jack" and "food" exist.
If you negate the sentence and say "No, Jack didn't eat the food" the fact that Jack and the food exist is still not questioned. Presuppositions are the most powerful of the language patterns, when used by a communicator who presupposes what she doesn't want to have questioned. A general principle is to give the person lots of choices, and yet have all of the choices presuppose the response you want. Examples of specific kinds of presuppositions that are particularly useful in hypnotic work follow.
There is a complete list of presuppositional forms in the appendix to Patterns I. Such clauses begin with words such as before, after, during, as, since, prior, when, while, etc. Words such as another, first, second, third, etc. Words like know, aware, realize, notice, etc. The only question is if the listener is aware of whatever point you are making.
Fortunately, luckily, innocently, happily, necessarily, etc. The more that is presupposed, the more difficult it is for the listener to unravel the sentence and question any one presupposition. Some of the presupposition sentences listed above contain several kinds of presuppositions, and those sentences will be more powerful.
The following sentence is an example of the use of many presuppositions stacked together. Indirect Elicitation PatternsThe next group of Milton-Model patterns are particularly useful in getting specific responses indirectly, without overtly asking for them. Rather than giving instructions directly, the hypnotist can embed directives within a larger sentence structure.
The above messages are likely to have a much more graceful impact than if you were to give the directives alone: "Relax. Embedded commands are particularly powerful when used with analogue marking. Analogue marking means that you set the directive apart from the rest of the sentence with some nonverbal analogue behavior. You could do this by raising the volume of your voice when delivering the directive, by pausing before and after the directive, by changing your voice tone, by gesturing with one of your hands, or by raising your eyebrows.
You can use any behavior that is perceptible to the other person to mark out a directive for special attention.
The other person does not need to notice your marking consciously; in fact she will often respond more fully when your marking is perceived but not consciously recognized. Questions, like commands, can be embedded within a larger sentence structure.
The Structure of Magic: A Book About Language and Therapy v. 1
Because of differences in the structure of different languages, some of the distinctions. Notice the therapist's intentional use of the cause and effect pattern here. In this way. From Pragmatic s of Ilumao Communication , page Bandler and Grinder discuss.
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Neuro-linguistic programming NLP is a pseudoscientific approach to communication, personal development, and psychotherapy created by Richard Bandler and John Grinder in California, United States, in the s. NLP's creators claim there is a connection between neurological processes neuro- , language linguistic and behavioral patterns learned through experience programming , and that these can be changed to achieve specific goals in life. There is no scientific evidence supporting the claims made by NLP advocates, and it has been discredited as a pseudoscience. According to Bandler and Grinder, NLP comprises a methodology termed modeling , plus a set of techniques that they derived from its initial applications. Bandler and Grinder also drew upon the theories of Gregory Bateson , Alfred Korzybski and Noam Chomsky particularly transformational grammar ,    as well as ideas and techniques from Carlos Castaneda. Bandler and Grinder claim that their methodology can codify the structure inherent to the therapeutic "magic" as performed in therapy by Perls, Satir and Erickson, and indeed inherent to any complex human activity, and then from that codification, the structure and its activity can be learned by others.
A Pragmatic Guide To Communication & Change.pdf - NLP Info Centre
Он запаникует и в конце концов, столкнувшись с группой вооруженных людей, ничего не сможет поделать. После минутного упорства ему придется уступить. Но если я вызову агентов безопасности, весь мой план рухнет, - подумал .
ГЛАВА 2 На высоте тридцать тысяч футов, над застывшим внизу океаном, Дэвид Беккер грустно смотрел в крохотный овальный иллюминатор самолета Лирджет-60. Ему сказали, что бортовой телефон вышел из строя, поэтому позвонить Сьюзан не удастся. - Что я здесь делаю? - пробормотал. Ответ был очень простым: есть люди, которым не принято отвечать. - Мистер Беккер, - возвестил громкоговоритель.
Капля Росы. Вы уверены. Но Пьер Клушар провалился в глубокое забытье.