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- Martin P. Nilsson
- The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion and its Survival in Greek Religion
- Lesson 26: Bibliography
- Lesson 26: Bibliography
Boehm and S.
This article discusses the archaeology of religion in the prehistoric Aegean. For the Early Bronze Age, funerary rituals are richly documented in Early Minoan Crete, and the iconography of the folded-arm figures in the Cyclades may well be indicative of religious practices. For the Middle Bronze Age, it is only in Crete that the cave and peak sanctuaries indicate rituals which the symbolic evidence from later periods suggests may already have been religious in nature. The indications from the Minoan palaces of the Later Bronze Age are still open to differing interpretations. Subsequently in the Later Bronze Age, Crete, the Cyclades, and Mainland Greece all give evidence of shrines and sanctuaries testifying to the practice of a religion or to religions.
Martin P. Nilsson
In addition, much of the evidence which seemed to be religious in nature was very similar both on the mainland and on Crete. Nilsson was the first to combine Minoan and Mycenaean religion because the iconographic similarities in the religious artifacts were, for the most part, indistinguishable. It became increasingly common to interpret the tablets and the religious information provided in them, based on our knowledge of later Greek religion.
For these reasons, I believe it is time to take a fresh look at the evidence. This paper focuses on the Linear B evidence for Mycenaean religion at the site of Knossos. Assessing Mycenaean religion on Crete in the Late Minoan period, in many ways, is more difficult than evaluating Late Helladic religion on the mainland. More recently, however, S. Hiller and R. Moody eds. This examination has produced some interesting results. In general terms, Knossian tablets containing religious information are concentrated in only a few findspots and written by a select group of scribes.
The remaining tablets from Knossos which may allude to Mycenaean religion are often fragmentary, were found in various parts of the palace, and were not clustered with other religious tablets.
Driessen and A. Farnoux, eds. Popham, Review of J. In addition, K. However, the results of their study have not been confirmed and the validity of this palm print has been called into question by Olivier and Driessen personal communication. Other scribes who write tablets each are , , , , and possibly I begin with the tablets from the Room of the Clay Chest. Nearly all of them belong to the Fp 1 or Fs series, with the exception of one Gg tablet and one fragmentary X tablet.
Most of the Fs tablets are either very fragmentary or contain only hapaxes, making them difficult to interpret with any certainty. The only tablets that can be read with some confidence do pertain to the religious interests of the palace: Fs 8 records offerings to a divinity pa-de, and Fs 32 contains only da-da-re-[,13 both of which are attested in the Fp series.
The divinities and religious locales documented in the Room of the Clay Chest are listed in Table 1. Those that are clearly understandable in Mycenaean Greek are indicated in boldface, while the more obscure terms are in plain text. C 33 is also assigned to the Room of the Clay Chest, though its subject matter and scribal hand both of which are different from the other tablets suggest that this assignment may have been a mistake by the excavators; it was not unusual for recording errors to occur, especially in the first year of excavation.
For this reason, I do not include this tablet in my discussion. Therefore, the fact that there is no specific reference to religion is not troublesome. By analogy with pa-si-te-o-i, many other entries have been interpreted as divinities.
At least three names, a-re, di-we modified by di-ka-ta-jo and e-ri-nu, are recognizable as divinities known in later Greek religion Ares, Zeus and Erinys, respectively. However, it should not be assumed that, because they are known in later Greek religion, they must also be divinities in the Bronze Age. Rather, their occurrence on tablets parallel to the undisputable Greek term, pa-si-te-o-i, as recipients of small quantities of oil, suggests their divine nature. That they are also divine in the historical period can only support this interpretation.
According to Firth, who has thoroughly examined the find contexts of the Knossos tablets, this findspot is closely connected with the Small Room to the East of the Gallery of the Jewel Fresco. He believes that these are part of the same tablet deposit and their distribution results from the tablets falling from an upper storey. For this reason, I will examine all of the tablets from these findspots as a single deposit.
A number of terms, especially from the Fs series, are omitted because their identification as a theonym or place name is indeterminable. This is the only clear reference in the Room of the Clay Chest of an offering made to an individual as opposed to a divinity or locale. In this paper, I offer another option, namely that this term may be referring to a Minoan divinity based on contextual and linguistic evidence.
In addition, only two locales, a-mi-ni-so and da-da-re-jo are clearly attested see Table 2. Table 2: Theonyms and Cult Locales in the Gallery of Jewel Fresco Tablets Theonyms Cult Locales da-pu2-ri-to-jo po-ti-ni-ja a-mi-ni-so e-re-u-ti-ja da-da-re-jo-de e-ne]-si-da-o-ne pa-si-te-o-i ]po-ti-ni-ja[ How then if at all do the tablets from the Gallery of Jewel Fresco relate to the tablets from the Room of the Clay Chest?
First, they are both concerned with sending offerings to the sites of a-mi-ni-so and da-da-re-jo. More importantly, they both frequently make use of the term pa-si-te-o-i. In fact, of the 15 attestations of pa-si-te-o-i, 14 of them occur on tablets either from 19 Two tablets are written by Scribe L and , one by Scribe Ga and possibly one by Scribe Dk The remaining tablets were written by Scribe , or are unassigned.
For example, F is broken on both sides, but the first word ended with ]wi-jo-jo, a common ending for month names and Gg seems to be a totaling tablets given the large number off amphoras of honey 34 on the recto and perhaps 80 on the verso. Gg records offerings of honey. That it is a reference to a divine figure is supported by the partial term ]-si-da-o-ne along with pa-si-te-o-i on Gg written by the same scribe and also found in the Gallery of the Jewel Fresco. For these reasons, e-ne-si-da-o- ne is included in my list of divinities.
Despite its obvious Greek etymology, this term occurs only at Knossos. I believe that pa-si-te-o-i is being used in a similar way in the Knossos tablets; that is, as a means to ensure that all divinities, some of whom the Mycenaeans are unable to name specifically, are included in ritual offerings.
I think it is significant in this regard that the term pa-si-te-o-i is never used on tablets from the Greek mainland. This tablet records offerings to pa-de and a-mi-ni-so-de, as well as another divinity pa-sa-ja, who is found on X with si-ja-ma-to. Kbo I,1. Table 3: Interconnections Between Divinities da-pu2-ri-to-jo di-ka-ta-jo mba-ti po-ti-ni-ja di-we pi-pi-tu-na e-re-u-ti-ja Gg Fp 1 Fp 15 g Gg Fp 13 Fp 13 g Fp Series e-ne]si-da-o-ne Gg pa-si-te-o-i 7 tablets qe-ra-si-ja g Fp 1 Fp 14 Fp 48 Fp 48 Fp 1 Fp 1 Fp 13 Fp 48 a-re Fp 48 pa-de a-ne-mo Fp 48 e-ri-nu i-je-re-ja si-ja-ma-to On the left in boldface are theonyms that are understandable, at least in terms of later Greek religion.
Yet, five of these, a-re, e-ri-nu, a-ne-mo, e-re-u-ti-ja, and e-ne-si-da-o-ne, do not receive offerings on any of the tablets from the mainland. Only two divinities, di-we and po-ti- ni-ja are attested outside of Crete and both have clear IE etymologies. On Table 3, I have grouped these to the right side and separated them by a dotted line. Currently, I am working on a paper, co-authored with Dimitri Nakassis,30 that proposes these divinities may actually be Minoan in origin.
The basis for our argument is that these theonyms, which are unattested on the mainland, seem to exhibit features of the Minoan language. Though the language of the Linear A texts is undeciphered, certain characteristics of the language are evident when Linear A is examined in light of our knowledge of Linear B.
For instance, the Minoan language has, at its core, syllables ending in the vowels a, i, and u. II, J. Greenberg ed. That Linear A is dominated by these three vowels, see D. Duhoux, T. Palaima and J. Bennet eds. Palaima and E. Betancourt, V. Karageorghis, R. Laffineur, and W. Niemeier eds. Three other divinities that I propose may be Minoan in origin are pa-de, qe-ra-si-ja and si-ja-ma-to. In addition, there is a variant spelling of this name in the form of pa-ze,37 suggesting that the spelling of this name is not static; i.
As for qe-ra-si-ja, the e in qe- seems to pose a problem. However, the Linear A evidence suggests that the phonetic value of the sign QE is actually quite similar to that of QA, and at least in one case they are used interchangeably. Doria, Avviamento allo studio del Miceneo. Struttura, problemi e testi, Rome , p. However, all three can independently be connected with the religion of Crete which at the very least raises some interesting questions. The o-series is very infrequent in Linear A which is reflected in the fact that the Mycenaeans needed to invent most of their signs for syllables containing o.
However, some e-series syllables are attested in Linear A. For this reason, Linear A may be seen as a four vowel language, in which the fourth vowel is something close to the vowel e J. When comparing words in Linear A and B, a certain degree of caution must be exercised, especially with words consisting of only two signs. In such instances, the probability of coincidence is too high. Yet, over time the spelling, and presumably the pronunciation, was simplified to pa-de. Personal communication with T.
Palaima; E. The alternation between the labial WA and U, linguistically, is not a problem.
The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion and its Survival in Greek Religion
Lesson 26: Bibliography
Nilsson pp. Church and State in the Cosmos of Crete International. Helpful studies include Martin P. Ancient Greek religion is known.
In his studies he combined literary evidence with archaeological evidence, linking historic and prehistoric evidence for the evolution of the Greek mythological cycles. Beginning in as a tutor at the University of Lund , he was appointed Secretary to the Swedish Archaeological Commission working in Rhodes , in In he was made a corresponding member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. Nilsson's best-known work in German is Geschichte der griechischen Religion transl.
The religious element is difficult to identify in Mycenaean Greece, especially as regards archaeological sites, where it remains problematic to choose a place of worship with certainty. John Chadwick notes that at least six centuries lie between the earliest presence of Proto-Greek language in Greece and ancient inscriptions in the Mycenaean script known as linear B script, in which concepts and practices are merged with the indigenous pre-Hellenic beliefs, and if cultural traditions in the material culture reflect the influence of religious beliefs - with Minoan religion. And these texts are several lists that give the names of gods as recipients of goods reveal nothing about religious practices, and there is no surviving literature. John Chadwick rejected a confusion of Minoan and Mycenaean religion derived from archaeological correlations, and cautioned against "the attempt to uncover the prehistory of classical Greek religion by conjecturing its origins and guessing the meaning of its myths" above all through treacherous etymologies.
Lesson 26: Bibliography
Повсюду разбросаны грязные бумажные полотенца, лужи воды на полу. Старая электрическая сушилка для рук захватана грязными пальцами. Беккер остановился перед зеркалом и тяжело вздохнул.
Начинаем отключение резервного питания. Приготовиться. Приступайте.
Беккер кивнул и поднес кольцо ближе к глазам. Затем начал читать надпись вслух: - Q… U… 1…S… пробел… С, Джабба и Сьюзан в один голос воскликнули: - Пробел? - Джабба перестал печатать. - Там пробел.
Вот именно, - простонал Джабба. - Он над вами издевается. А вы тем временем погибаете.
Танкадо хотел спасти наш банк данных, - говорила она. - А мы так и не узнаем, как это сделать. - Захватчики у ворот.