Patriarchy And Accumulation On A World Scale Pdf
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- Maria Mies, Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale, Zed Press, 1986, 2014.
- Contradições entre capital e cuidado
Patriarchy is a social system in which men hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority , social privilege and control of property. Patriarchy is associated with a set of ideas, a patriarchal ideology that acts to explain and justify this dominance and attributes it to inherent natural differences between men and women.
Maria Mies, Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale, Zed Press, 1986, 2014.
Denise Comanne last worked on this paper on 27 May , the day before she died. See: A vibrant internationalist, feminist and revolutionary voice has fallen silent: Denise Comanne Denise Comanne was planning to further improve this text as part of group work undertaken by the CADTM to strengthen its commitment to feminism. On the CADTM website, this text received more than 13, visits in the French version, more than 96, visits in English and more than 16, visits in Spanish. It has also been published on other sites.
The oppression of women is very ancient: it existed before capitalism, which is also a system of oppression, but one that is more global in nature. Patriarchy can be defined in simple terms as the oppression and objectification of women by men.
In addition to its strictly economic form, this oppression is expressed in many ways, notably through language, kinship relations, stereotypes, religion, and culture. The form oppression takes varies depending on whether you live in the North or the South, or in an urban or rural area.
Before such questioning can be formulated, the most common explanations must be brushed aside, whether based on physiology different sexual organs or brain or psychology a nature said to be passive, docile, narcissistic, etc. To be a feminist is thus to become aware of this oppression and, having realized that it is a system, to work to destroy it to help bring about the emancipation or liberation of women. Male domination cannot be reduced to a sum of individual acts of discrimination.
It is a coherent system that shapes all aspects of life, both collective and individual. There has in fact never been a situation of equality. The vast majority of women have always performed both a productive activity in the broad sense of the term and various household tasks. Married women in 19 th century Europe had almost no rights; the rights of women in Saudi Arabia today are virtually non existent generally speaking, women who live in societies in which religion is an affair of the State have very limited rights.
Women have continued to struggle collectively for more than two centuries to gain the right to vote, work, unionize, exercise their motherhood freely, and to full and total equality in the workplace, family, and public sphere. Physical violence may be conjugal violence, rape, or genital mutilation: this violence can go as far as murder.
Moral or psychological violence may be insults or humiliations. In the realm of ideas, violent acts are represented in various ways, such as in myths and various forms of discourse. It is also a way to codify the subordination of women in the representation of the body. The effect of this discourse is to make people accept these inequalities as an inevitable destiny: they have natural origins, and cannot be changed.
This type of discourse can be found in most societies. Aristotle offers the following explanation: "The masculine is hot and dry, associated with fire and a positive value; the feminine is cold and moist, associated with water and a negative value Thus, a form of social inequality codified in the social organization of the Greek city-state women were not citizens is transcribed as being natural, through the representation of the body.
To cite one example, in Inuit society, the cold, the raw, and nature are associated with men, whereas the hot, the cooked, and culture are associated with women. Just the opposite is true in Western societies, in which man is associated with culture and woman with nature. My goal is not to deny that there are biological differences between men and women; however, observing a difference does not mean automatically accepting that there is inequality. However, young women are often as unprepared as their spouse in the first days after a child is born.
On the other hand, they have often been prepared psychologically through education and the norms that permeate society for this new responsibility, which is going to require them to learn new skills. In Western societies, the white, middle class, Christian, heterosexual man has been, and is still to a large extent the reference model.
Only a person with these types of characteristics could can pretend to be a complete individual who can speak for humanity. In the past, when children were asked on school questionnaires what their parents did for a living, they were told to leave a blank for their mothers if they were housewives. It helps the DC, without any political restrictions, to set up basic administrative and technical services, trains managerial staff, tries to respond to some of the essential needs of populations, takes the initiative in regional co-operation programmes and co-ordinates, theoretically at least, the local activities of all the UN operations.
This figure must be seen in relation to that of world productivity, estimated at the time to be around 23 billion dollars, in order to get an idea of how much women contribute to humanity as a whole. UNDP, , p. Lastly, it should be recalled that in general women are paid less than men for the same or equivalent work. Housework involves the tasks that reproduce the workforce - tasks that are carried out within the family home.
To bring off such a tour de force has required that, through the patriarchal values underpinning our society, men and women accept and develop the idea that women are naturally predisposed to accomplishing domestic chores. Net profit is profit after tax.
Distributable profit is the part of the net profit which can be distributed to the shareholders. Analysis of its methods shows that, on the one hand, the capitalist system feeds on a pre-existing system of oppression — patriarchy — and on the other, it compounds many of its defining characteristics.
The oppression of women is a tool which enables capitalists to manage the entire workforce to their own profit. In other words, when the capitalists need extra labour, they call upon women whom they pay less than men, which has the side-effect of dragging down wages generally. Indeed some industrialized countries are seriously losing ground in comparative terms of human development, regarding this criterion: Canada has slipped back from the 1 st to the 9 th place in world ranking, Luxemburg has fallen back twelve places, the Netherlands sixteen and Spain twenty-six UNDP, Careers where women are in the majority in fields such as health care and education are devalued.
When capitalism is in crisis, austerity measures are introduced whereby women are the first to be excluded from social benefits such as unemployment benefits, for example, where they exist. Elsewhere, they are pushed into very poorly-paid jobs such as work in the free zones. Of course it was right to establish equal working conditions for women in the security and health services, and so forth; but what was also at stake with these so-called egalitarian measures was to allow women to work on the line in night-shifts, for example.
There is absolutely no vital imperative to build cars at night. The new measures establishing male-female equality should then have been — in clear-thinking feminist terms — to eliminate night-work for men. Moreover, for most women this night-work on the line, unacceptable on principle, makes life intolerably hard most of the time, in view of the work women still have to do in the domestic sphere.
To manage this issue, capitalism uses patriarchy as a lever to attain its objectives, while at the same time reinforcing it. They invoke weakness, menstruation, absenteeism for pregnancy and maternity leave, breastfeeding, and caring for sick children and older relatives.
This holds a double interest Interest An amount paid in remuneration of an investment or received by a lender.
Interest is calculated on the amount of the capital invested or borrowed, the duration of the operation and the rate that has been set. On the one hand, they have a cheaper, more flexible labour pool that can be used or laid off according to market fluctuations; on the other hand, this enables them to bring down rates of pay generally.
Housework, in its true sense, came into being with capitalism. By largely replacing small-scale commercial production in the domains of agriculture and the crafts with big industry, capitalism made the separation between the sites of production the workplace and of reproduction the family increasingly distinct, assigning to women the role of responsibility for the home.
However, contrary to popular belief, women in the lower classes never stopped working, caught in the web of contradictions linked to their tasks within the family and their difficult working conditions. This is why we feel that the articulation between capitalism and patriarchal oppression must be analysed as a single phenomenon. Capitalism is a dynamic and aggressive mode of production which as such, penetrates all social relations. For example, capitalism did not hesitate to make mass calls for very cheap female and child labour in the early 19 th century, in order to increase production and thus profits.
With the delocalisation of traditional or cutting-edge industries, in North Africa, Latin America or Asia, employers, in search of new profits, recruit young women into the labour market. These young, exploited, working women have nevertheless been able to acquire a certain financial independence from the men of the family, leading them to demand freedom in many domains.
At the same time, in the developed capitalist countries, more and more of the activities previously kept within the family are externalized, taken care of in the first instance by public services such as schools and health institutions, or increasingly dealt with through the market: the making of clothes, meals, and so on. Capitalism, while favouring a certain emancipation of women for the sake of profit, nevertheless remains very attached to the traditional family institution.
In our societies, the family plays a fundamental role in reproducing the divisions, as well as the hierarchy, between the different social classes and genders to which different social and economic functions are assigned. As for men, they are always supposed to be the main economic purveyors. All this makes it possible, in the context of professional segregation and in the name of the so-called complementary roles, to carry on underpaying women on a discriminatory basis.
In times of economic expansion, as was the case for about thirty years until the early s, women are massively called upon as cheap labour in a number of manufacturing industries such as electronics, then as wage-earners in the service industry.
If women were not perceived as those who are in charge of those chores within the family, a substantial reduction of working time for all and a significant development of social facilities would have to be introduced. Nonetheless, partisans of the capitalist social order do not hesitate to defend a family order based on hierarchical differences between genders. For instance, the hottest partisans of the traditional family consider that rehabilitated paternal authority ought to dam and wall in the possible outbursts of anger among marginalized youths in the poorer urban areas.
Lastly, and this may at first seem to contradict the previous point, the family offers a huge advantage: it is a relatively flexible institution its forms have significantly diversified over the past thirty years. It can be used as a safety valve for the constraints wage-earners have to face on the workplace. Most people can choose neither their work, nor their working conditions. Advertising is intended to maintain this illusion.
This sense of freedom is still limited by essential factors: financial resources, gender and age. Because they are still seen as responsible for domestic chores, and because of the domestic violence they are still too often subjected to, women know all too well the limits of their freedom.
These various elements go some way to explaining why the family is still a fundamental support to capitalist society. Therefore, contrary to what some feminists seem to believe, it is difficult to imagine how the liberation of women of all women, not just of a tiny minority , could be achieved in a capitalist system. This is why we deem it necessary, whatever the conflicts involved, to bring together the struggle of women against patriarchal oppression and the struggle of wage-earners against capitalist exploitation.
There was no accumulation, but a constant search for resources, for ways of staying alive. Nobody could appropriate resources without endangering collective survival.
This made for social equality. According to what we read in works by anthropologists and historians:. Social gender equality and collective property of resources and means of production were still the rule, with land, too, a collective property for common use. Such societies did have some sort of division of labour between men and women. Women had specific tasks such as ploughing the fields, pottery and weaving, but such gender division did not result in the oppression of women or in their exclusion from the public arena and their confinement to the family circle.
Not only did women take part in productive activities but they still played a part in the social organization:. However, in some of these societies men could be observed taking over power so as to control reproduction and thus keep up the number of producers. Social surplus production and the emergence of social classes. Ancient societies. The accumulation of resources, the development of productive forces and tools time not required for survival could be devoted to designing and making tools , led to surplus production.
This resulted in social classes since some considered this surplus as their own property and wanted it to increase. At the same time in Antiquity, around BC we observe the development of slavery - first of prisoners from conquered territories and peoples; later also because of unpaid debts — and of the State. The function of the State was to guarantee that ruling classes could maintain their ownership of social surplus through institutions that excluded other members of the community from political functions: power belonged to hereditary lords, kings or noblemen.
They set up an army, a civil service, a judiciary power, and producers of ideology scholars, teachers who were to make sure that the domination of those who appropriated wealth was accepted by all.
Contradições entre capital e cuidado
Denise Comanne last worked on this paper on 27 May , the day before she died. See: A vibrant internationalist, feminist and revolutionary voice has fallen silent: Denise Comanne Denise Comanne was planning to further improve this text as part of group work undertaken by the CADTM to strengthen its commitment to feminism. On the CADTM website, this text received more than 13, visits in the French version, more than 96, visits in English and more than 16, visits in Spanish. It has also been published on other sites. The oppression of women is very ancient: it existed before capitalism, which is also a system of oppression, but one that is more global in nature.
Readings are provided free for use by participants studying in the Anne Braden Training Program for Anti-Racist Organizers, a noncommercial, nonprofit educational program. We encourage everyone to buy the works from which excerpts have been taken — please support these authors and publishers. Marlon M. He has continued to write and teach.
Education for extinction: American Indians and the boarding school experience, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, Functionalist, determinist, reductionist: social reproduction feminism and its critics.
Radical Economics pp Cite as.
Беккер увидел в ее руке сережку в виде черепа. - Так это клипса. - Да, - сказала девушка. - Я до чертиков боюсь прокалывать уши.
Простота. Губительная простота. Он делает то, на что запрограммирован, а потом исчезает. Фонтейн сурово смотрел на Джаббу: - И на что же запрограммирован этот червяк. - Понятия не имею, - сказал Джабба.
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