structure and function of human kidney pdf

Structure And Function Of Human Kidney Pdf

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Published: 09.05.2021

The kidneys are among the most vital organs of the human body. Malfunction of the kidneys can lead to serious illness or even death.

Anatomy and Function of the Urinary System

The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs present in all vertebrates. They remove waste products from the body, maintain balanced electrolyte levels, and regulate blood pressure. The kidneys are some of the most important organs. The Ancient Egyptians left only the brain and kidneys in position before embalming a body, inferring that the held a higher value. In this article, we will look at the structure and function of the kidneys, diseases that affect them, and how to keep the kidneys healthy. The right kidney is generally slightly smaller and lower than the left, to make space for the liver. A tough, fibrous renal capsule surrounds each kidney.

The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs that are found high in the back of the abdominal cavity, just below the rib cage; one on either side of the spine. The right kidney is slightly lower than the left because of the position of the liver. Adult kidneys measure approximately 10 to 12cm in length and 5 to 7 cm in width, and weigh approximately g. If you were to cut a kidney in half you would see that it is divided into a dark outer area the cortex and an inner lighter-coloured area the medulla. Within the medulla there are between 10 and 18 renal pyramids; triangular structures which have a striped appearance. They have this appearance because of the renal tubules and associated blood vessels.

What do the kidneys do?

The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped structures that are located just below and posterior to the liver in the peritoneal cavity. Adrenal glands, also called suprarenal glands, sit on top of each kidney. All the blood in the human body is filtered many times a day by the kidneys. These organs use almost 25 percent of the oxygen absorbed through the lungs to perform this function. Oxygen allows the kidney cells to efficiently manufacture chemical energy in the form of ATP through aerobic respiration. Kidneys eliminate wastes from the body; urine is the filtrate that exits the kidneys.

Structure and Function of the Kidneys

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs in the renal system. They help the body pass waste as urine. They also help filter blood before sending it back to the heart.

Nephron , functional unit of the kidney , the structure that actually produces urine in the process of removing waste and excess substances from the blood. There are about 1,, nephrons in each human kidney. The most primitive nephrons are found in the kidneys pronephros of primitive fish, amphibian larvae, and embryos of more advanced vertebrates. The nephrons found in the kidneys mesonephros of amphibians and most fish, and in the late embryonic development of more advanced vertebrates, are only slightly more advanced in structure. The most advanced nephrons occur in the adult kidneys, or metanephros , of land vertebrates, such as reptiles, birds, and mammals.

Click Image to Enlarge. The body takes nutrients from food and changes them to energy. After the body has taken the food components that it needs, waste products are left behind in the bowel and in the blood. The kidney and urinary systems help the body to get rid of liquid waste called urea.

Kidney and its Function

How Your Kidneys Work

The kidneys are located at the rear wall of the abdominal cavity and they are protected by the ribcage. The kidneys are the primary functional organ of the renal system. They are essential in homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid—base balance, and the regulation of blood pressure by maintaining salt and water balance. They serve the body as a natural filter of the blood and remove wastes that are excreted through the urine.

Learn how the kidneys and kidney patients are affected here. Most people know that a major function of the kidneys is to remove waste products and excess fluid from the body. These waste products and excess fluid are removed through the urine. The production of urine involves highly complex steps of excretion and re-absorption.

The kidneys are two reddish-brown bean-shaped organs found in vertebrates. Each kidney is attached to a ureter , a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder. The nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney. Each adult human kidney contains around 1 million nephrons, while a mouse kidney contains only about 12, nephrons. The kidney participates in the control of the volume of various body fluids , fluid osmolality , acid-base balance , various electrolyte concentrations, and removal of toxins. Filtration occurs in the glomerulus : one-fifth of the blood volume that enters the kidneys is filtered.


PDF | In this chapter we explain: The basic anatomy and physiology of the kidney How kidney function a, b) Light micrographs of normal renal cortex with the main structures indicated. The human glomerulus is the primary filtration unit of the kidney, and contains the Glomerular Filtration Barrier (GFB).


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Kidney Overview

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