root causes of terrorism myths reality and ways forward pdf

Root Causes Of Terrorism Myths Reality And Ways Forward Pdf

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Is hike in inflation responsible for rise in terrorism in Pakistan?

This book addresses the issues of radicalism and terrorism, which are of exceptional importance and relevance in contemporary society. Each of the two phenomena are analyzed from a multidisciplinary perspective. The book contains articles which explore legal, political, psychological, economic and social aspects of radicalism and terrorism.

A portion of the contributions are of a theoretical nature, they constitute an attempt at constructing analytical frameworks for studies on the two phenomena. There are also studies of particular cases, such as radicalism in Poland and in Spain, as well as within the European Union as a whole. This collective work is a response to the need for analyses of two issues which are increasingly responsible for determining the level of security which characterizes the contemporary world.

Download PDF Sebastian Wojciechowski. Reasons of Contemporary Terrorism. An Analysis of Main Determinants.

Introduction 1. When analyzing the reasons for terrorism, a few key questions need to be asked. What makes terrorism escalate? Is it possible to identify one or several main sources of terrorism?

Are certain reasons for terrorism characteristic specific of only a given historical period or region? Is there a single universal model classification of sources of terrorism, and what elements should it encompass?

The fundamental objective of this text is an attempt to answer the above questions, together with:. Discussing the reasons for terrorism as presented in the literature on the subject through an analysis of selected examples. Presenting a handful of classifications of the sources of terrorism including one proposed by the author. Presenting the hybridity of causes of terrorism which emphasizes the multiplicity and complexity of sources of terrorism and indicates the mutual relations between them.

The key role is played by three main groups of determinants, namely ideological, socio-economic and psychological reasons, as well as their mutual interactions. It should be stressed that the discussion that follows does not aspire to be an exhaustive analysis of the reasons behind terrorism, but it rather aims to contribute to the ongoing discussion on the subject in question. It also involves the presentation of a new concept and its components. Causes of Terrorism.

The reasons for terrorism are an example of the so-called system of communicating vessels. This means that they are a sum total of a plethora of different elements, their mutual relations and the conditions that influence them. The literature on the subject reveals significant disparities when indicating the main reasons for terrorism. Wilkinson, for example, names the following generators of terrorism: ethnic, religious or ideological conflicts, poverty, negative aftermath of modernization, injustice, revolutionary sentiments among society, weak governments or an internal power struggle.

He refers to an extensive range of determinants from various categories of political, social, economic, cultural, and psychological nature. Hall, who sees the sources of terrorism in the political, religious and ideological realms, or in response to violence. Another list has been compiled by C. Sterling, who indicates the following motives for terrorist activity: 4.

In the opinion of M. Crenshaw, there are four key motives for terrorist activities: 5 the hope to change the status quo , the need to belong to a group, the attempt to improve social status, and the desire to obtain material reward.

Taxonomy of Reasons. Even on the basis of the several selected examples that are presented above, one can observe the considerable diversity of the sources of terrorism. This calls for some order to be introduced. In the opinion of certain specialists, it is difficult to develop a single, universal model of reasons for terrorism to encompass different forms and geographical regions. An example is provided by F.

Gross, who identified a separate mechanism of terrorism emerging in democratic societies in contrast to the mechanism present in autocratic states. The former applies to the United States, among other countries, and focuses primarily on the terrorism generated by Muslim groups, including Al Qaeda. Among the factors that apply here, F. The latter model refers primarily to Eastern Europe, where the key form involves individual terrorism aimed at the representatives or promoters of the democratic system.

In an attempt to classify the sources of terrorism, one can divide them into simple and complex ones. The former group characterizes only selected instances of terrorism, where a single, clearly defined motive predominates, for instance, the attacks executed by Ted Kaczynski, or the so-called anti-abortion terrorism.

The latter group involves complex reasons, where various motives, e. This applies to a majority of cases of terrorism, as exemplified by Palestinian or Northern-Irish terrorism.

In the opinion of A. Cronin, all reasons for terrorism can be divided into four levels. The first one is the individual level. The main point of reference is provided by external factors that lead an individual to become involved in terrorist activities, and the personal traits making such involvement more or less likely. The second level is of organizational nature. It is related to a group dynamics and the issues of group identification.

Shared ideology, belief systems, and the activities of a given group are of key significance. The third level is related to the activities of the state and the need to analyze the different ways in which states take advantage of terrorism. The experts from the National Research Council of the National Academies in Washington also emphasize that it is necessary to comprehensively analyze the reasons for terrorism, claiming that the separate analysis of individual reasons is erroneous.

In their opinion, two levels of reasons for terrorism can be distinguished. One concerns historical, social, political, and cultural conditions which facilitate the escalation of terrorism. The other refers to direct determinants, such as motivation, group, and ideological or organizational factors that culminate in terrorist activity.

Another division of motives for terrorist activity has been designed by J. Horgan, who identified three groups of factors: 9. The sense of injustice and harm is one of the strongest psychological conditions. This may concern an individual, group or a given situation, and so on, leading to various responses, including the use of violence. Rossa, who distinguishes economic, ethnic, racial, legal, political, religious and social harms.

The sense of identity is considered to be a significant element of human existence. The sense of membership is another significant element of human personality. However, A. Wejkszner divides the reasons for modern terrorism into the following categories.

A broader analysis is founded on numerous concepts, including those developed by S. Huntington, E. Staub, F. Moghaddam, O. Wejkszner involves politico-organizational determinants. On the one hand, they concern the issue of state sponsorship of terrorism, on the other, they concentrate around the issues that allow the preparation or execution of specified terrorist actions in the most efficient manner. The elements discussed here include globalization, neocolonialism, or consumerism.

Another group of sources of terrorism concerns technology. Technical progress has an indisputable influence on the majority of social phenomena and processes in the modern world, including terrorism. What is meant here is mainly its influence on the strategy and tactics employed by terrorists as well as by the formations that combat them. Can technical progress provide a direct stimulus for terrorism, though? If so, how is it done?

Thus it has a direct impact on the efficiency of terrorist activities and generates new kinds of terrorism, such as cyberterrorism. An extensive classification of the sources of terrorism has been proposed by R. Kosta, who divided them into four basic groups: socio-economic, historico-political, sociological, and psychological.

Terrorism may also result from economic backwardness, illiteracy, demographic growth, social disproportions, aggressive policies of large companies, as well as globalization or reduced social spending. The range of factors presented above is thus quite extensive and varied. The second group of sources of terrorism indicated by R. Kosta concerns historico-political conditions.

Their origins can be found in the demands that human rights be respected, among many other factors. Brewer, the analysis of historico-political sources of the activities of such organizations as the Red Army Faction or the Tamil Tigers 17 should also be perceived in relation to postcolonial conflicts and respect for the rule of law.

Another category deals with sociological reasons. The fourth group embraces psychological sources. To a large extent they are a consequence of serious psychological imbalances in the perpetrators, including excessive self-esteem. This point of view is also shared by R. Robins and J. Post, when they emphasize that a charismatic leader with paranoid traits can frequently persuade people with similar views to share certain ideas. A slightly different method for classifying sources of terrorism is presented by the authors of International Encyclopedia of Terrorism , 19 who distinguish three basic kinds of sources of terrorism.

The first concerns various ideas of a nationalist or fundamentalist nature. The second category results from the intention to execute or maintain certain social changes. The last category involves psychological determinants that characterize both terrorists and their victims.

Root Causes of Terrorism: Myths, Reality and Ways Forward by Bjrgo Tore

This book introduces you to the key issues in contemporary studies on Terrorism. Its interdisciplinary approach provides a unique intellectual rigour which introduces readers to cutting-edge research. Bringing together chapters contributed by members of the Terrorism and Political Violence Association network, it offers an insight into a variety of traditional and critical perspectives. It also equips Undergraduate and Postgraduate students with the study skills needed to succeed in coursework and assignments, especially dissertation work. This is the perfect textbook to guide you through your studies in terrorism, political violence, international security and strategic studies.

Shahbaz, Muhammad and Shabbir, Shahbaz Muhammad : Is hike in inflation responsible for rise in terrorism in Pakistan? This paper investigates the static and dynamic effect of inflation and economic growth on terrorism using annual frequency i. In doing so, ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration has been applied while robustness of long run relationship is confirmed by using rolling window approach. The empirical evidence confirms cointegration between inflation, economic growth and terrorism in Pakistan. An increase in inflation raises terrorist attacks.

Worldwide, the number of deaths from terrorism is rising at an alarming rate. Needless to mention, terrorism has a huge negative impact on the economy, mainly affecting price, output, employment, trade balance, poverty, inequality, military expenditure, budget pattern of the governments, sociopolitical environment, and several others. Calculation of the impact of terrorism on economic variables is undoubtedly important as primarily it portrays the vividness of the activity. This chapter concentrates on the impact of economic variables on terrorism because it is believed that knowledge of such an impact is necessary for initiating policies for reducing terrorism. This chapter finds that, especially in India, increase in the level of human development, which otherwise is believed to reduce the terrorist activities of a country, increases the number of casualties due to terrorist activities primarily because of uneven social and economic development. Chakraborty, S.


Root causes of terrorism: myths, reality, and ways forward /edited by Tore Bjørgo. p. cm. 1. addressed? Is the root cause approach to reducing terrorism a fruitful and realistic way northcornwallnt.org Reich, W. (ed.).


Reasons of Contemporary Terrorism. An Analysis of Main Determinants (Sebastian Wojciechowski)

The system can't perform the operation now. Try again later. Citations per year. Duplicate citations. The following articles are merged in Scholar.

However, recent studies have suggested that there is little or no direct causal link between poverty and insurgent terrorism. I will begin this essay by briefly summarizing these studies, before going on to suggest possible explanations for their perhaps surprising results. As a consequence wealthy individuals may be quicker to resort to terrorist tactics themselves. Alternatively terrorism might only be available to those privileged enough to have already acquired the necessary skills and social standing.

Tore Bjørgo

An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of Contemporary Terrorism in India

The system can't perform the operation now. Try again later. Citations per year.

This book addresses the issues of radicalism and terrorism, which are of exceptional importance and relevance in contemporary society. Each of the two phenomena are analyzed from a multidisciplinary perspective. The book contains articles which explore legal, political, psychological, economic and social aspects of radicalism and terrorism. A portion of the contributions are of a theoretical nature, they constitute an attempt at constructing analytical frameworks for studies on the two phenomena.


PDF | Terrorism is too important a subject for us not to be interested in what Root Causes of Terrorism: Myths, reality and ways forward.


This team of international experts analyses the possibilities and limitations of preventing or reducing terrorism by addressing the factors that give rise to it and sustain it. The key questions raised include: - what are the main circumstances that provide preconditions for the emergence of various types of terrorism? They relied on what they could grow and hunt as their primary food the Aztec diet was plant-based and focused on a few major foods. There is nothing divine in the text--in its letters, words, or clauses, he said. Microsoft Works was a secondary Office suite by Microsoft which is now obsolete.

However, the present article tends to presume the contemporary history, i. Drawing upon the work of experts in terrorism psychology, I explore the psychological commonalities of the modern Hamlets, who can be distinguished by their isolation, vulnerability, and self-delusion. Appropriative literature is often denigrated for its lack of originality and being indebted to its canonical sources; such a reductionist assumption stems from our conception of appropriative literature as the recycling of previous literary works. This paper attempts to demonstrate that the two novels are not to be readily categorized as cultural or artistic reuse of Hamlet.

Внезапно ее охватило ощущение опасности. - Ну, давай же, - настаивал Хейл.  - Стратмор практически выгнал Чатрукьяна за то, что тот скрупулезно выполняет свои обязанности.

 Мисс Флетчер! - раздался изумленный возглас, и Сьюзан увидела на водительском сиденье электрокара, похожего на те, что разъезжают по полям для гольфа, смутно знакомую фигуру. - Господи Иисусе! - воскликнул водитель.  - С вами все в порядке. Мы уж думали, вы все погибли. Сьюзан посмотрела на него отсутствующим взглядом.

Reasons of Contemporary Terrorism. An Analysis of Main Determinants (Sebastian Wojciechowski)

Но все же кто. Беккер держался своей легенды: - Я из севильской полиции.

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This team of international experts analyses the possibilities and limitations of preventing or reducing terrorism by addressing the factors that give rise to it.

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