Toxicology Of Organophosphate And Carbamate Compounds Pdf
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Organophosphates OPs and carbamates have a wide variety of applications, most commonly as pesticides used to eradicate agricultural pests or control populations of disease-carrying vectors. Some OP and carbamates have therapeutic indications such as physostigmine. Certain organophosphorus compounds, known as nerve agents, have been employed in chemical warfare and terrorism incidents.
- Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Compounds - E-bog
- 2020, Number 08
- Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning
Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Compounds - E-bog
Some OPs nerve agents have been used in chemical warfare and terrorist attacks, while some OPs and CMs have been recommended as therapeutic agents in human medicine as well as in veterinary medicine. These anticholinesterase agents produce a variety of toxicological effects in target and nontarget organs. In light of this complexicity, this multi-authored book is written by the well known scientists from many countries. The book is organized into nine sections, with a total of 49 chapters, to provide in-depth knowledge on various aspects of OP and CM compounds, including their use, classification, mechanism-based toxicity, and prophylactic and therapeutic measurements. Section-VI with 5 chapters is specifically devoted to risk assessment, and safety and regulatory guidelines for pesticides. Metabolism of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticides
2020, Number 08
The carbamates are esters of carbamic acid. Unlike organophosphates, carbamates are not structurally complex. Presently, the volume of carbamates used exceeds that of organophosphates, because carbamates are considered to be safer than organophosphates. The oral LD 50 in rats is 0. Dogs are frequently poisoned with malicious intent. The oral LD 50 in rats, dogs, chickens, ducks, pheasants, quails, and wild birds is 8, 19, 6. Dogs are commonly poisoned with malicious intent by tainting food.
One of the major classes of pesticides is that of the organophosphates OPs. Initial developments date back almost 2 centuries but it was only in the mids that OPs reached a prominent status as insecticides, a status that, albeit declining, is still ongoing. OPs are highly toxic to nontarget species including humans, the primary effects being an acute cholinergic toxicity responsible for thousands of poisoning each year and a delayed polyneuropathy. Several issues of current debate and investigation on the toxicology of OPs are discussed in this brief review. Some of these issues have been debated and studied for some time, while others are newer, suggesting that the study of the toxicology of OPs will remain an important scientific and public health issue for years to come. Both John Doull see article by Eaton et al.
Key words:. Marrero, S. King, A. Aaron, C. Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoning. Emerg med Clin N AM, 33 , pp.
Toxicology of Organophosphate & Carbamate Compounds. Book • Edited by: Ramesh C. Gupta.
Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning
Metrics details. Severe organophosphorus or carbamate pesticide poisoning is an important clinical problem in many countries of the world. Unfortunately, little clinical research has been performed and little evidence exists with which to determine best therapy. A cohort study of acute pesticide poisoned patients was established in Sri Lanka during ; so far, more than pesticide poisoned patients have been treated.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The molecular targets of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides are cholinesterases, particularly acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that controls the transmission of nerve impulses at synapses. Cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides can cause fatalities by dermal contact, as well as by inhalation and ingestion. Poisonings of children can be greatly reduced by proper labeling and storage of pesticides. See page 23 for more information about continuing medical education credits and continuing education units. A year-old, comatose male with miosis, diaphoresis, and incontinence.
Organophosphate poisoning is poisoning due to organophosphates OPs.
Critical Care Toxicology pp Cite as. Organophosphorus OP insecticides are used widely in agriculture, horticulture, and veterinary medicine. These insecticides also are used domestically and in public hygiene to control vectors of disease. Some OP compounds e.
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