Concept Of State And Government Pdf
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Various schools of thought consider the state to be either a neutral entity separated from society or an immoral partisan instrument. A state is an organized political community acting under a government. States may be classified as sovereign if they are not dependent on, or subject to, any other power or state. States are considered to be subject to external sovereignty, or hegemony, if their ultimate sovereignty lies in another state.
A federated state is a territorial, constitutional community that forms part of a federation. Such states differ from sovereign states, in that they have transferred a portion of their sovereign powers to a federal government.
The United States : Americans live in a federal system of 50 states that, together, make up the United Sates of America. Most political theories of the state can roughly be classified into two categories. The first, which includes liberal or conservative theories, treats capitalism as a given, and concentrates on the function of states in a capitalist society. Theories of this variety view the state as a neutral entity distinct from both society and the economy.
Marxist theory, on the other hand, sees politics as intimately intermingled with economic relations, and emphasizes the relationship between economic power and political power. Marxists view the state as a partisan instrument that primarily serves the interests of the upper class. He believed that the state mirrored societal class relations, that it regulated and repressed class struggle, and that it was a tool of political power and domination for the ruling class. Anarchism is a political philosophy that considers states immoral and instead promotes a stateless society, anarchy.
Anarchists believe that the state is inherently an instrument of domination and repression, no matter who is in control of it. Anarchists believe that the state apparatus should be completely dismantled and an alternative set of social relations created, which would be unrelated to state power. Anarchists at the G20 Summit in London, : Anarchists oppose state control. Pluralists view society as a collection of individuals and groups competing for political power.
They then view the state as a neutral body that simply enacts the will of whichever group dominates the electoral process. Within the pluralist tradition, Robert Dahl developed the theory of the state as a neutral arena for contending interests.
He also viewed governmental agencies as simply another set of competing interest groups. The pluralist approach suggests that the modern democratic state acts in response to pressures that are applied by a variety of organized interests.
Dahl called this kind of state a polyarchy. Pluralism has been challenged on the ground that it is not supported by empirical evidence. States differ in sovereignty, governance, geography, and interests. Other states are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony where ultimate sovereignty lies in another state. A federated state is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation.
The concept of the state is different from the concept of government. A government is the particular group of people that controls the state apparatus at a given time. In other words, governments are the means through which state power is employed; for example, by applying the rule of law. The rule of law is a legal maxim whereby governmental decisions are made by applying known legal principles. The rule of law is rule not by one person, as in an absolute monarchy, but by laws, as in a democratic republic; no one person can rule and even top government officials are under and ruled by the law.
The concept of the state is also different from the concept of a nation, which refers to a large geographical area, and the people therein who perceive themselves as having a common identity. The state is a political and geopolitical entity; the nation is a cultural or ethnic entity.
The nation state is a state that self-identifies as deriving its political legitimacy from serving as a sovereign entity for a nation as a sovereign territorial unit. The term nation state implies that the two geographically coincide.
In classical thought, the state was identified with political society and civil society as a form of political community. In contrast, modern thought distinguishes the nation state as a political society from civil society as a form of economic society. Civil society is the arena outside of the family, the state, and the market where people associate to advance common interests.
It is sometimes considered to include the family and the private sphere and then referred to as the third sector of society, distinct from government and business. Heads of State : In the United States, the state is governed by a government headed by an elected president. Pictured here are, from left to right, Presidents George H.
Bush, Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and Jimmy Carter. Citizenship carries both rights and responsibilities, as it describes a person with legal rights within a given political order. Legally, citizenship denotes a link between an individual and a state. Under international law, citizenship is synonymous to nationality, although the two may have different meanings under national law. A person who does not have citizenship in any state is stateless.
Many people are presumed to be citizens of a nation if they were born within the physical geographic territory of the nation. Dual Citizenship : Some people may be citizens of more than one country. Nationalization is the acquisition of citizenship by somebody who was not a citizen of that country at the time of birth.
Citizenship can also be obtained by marrying a citizen, which is termed jure matrimonii. Citizenship status, under social contract theory, carries with it both rights and responsibilities. It generally describes a person with legal rights within a given political order. It almost always has an element of exclusion, meaning that some people are not citizens; this distinction can sometimes be very important, or not important, depending on a particular society.
More generally, citizenship is seen as the relation between an individual and a particular nation. Theories explaining the origins and formation of states all revolve around the ability to centralize power in a sustainable way. Today we take it for granted that different societies are governed by different states, but this has not always been the case. Earlier, quite large land areas had been either unclaimed or uninhabited, or inhabited by nomadic peoples who were not organized as states.
In fact, for most of human history, people have lived in stateless societies, characterized by a lack of concentrated authority, and the absence of large inequalities in economic and political power. Most agree that the earliest states emerged when agriculture and writing made it possible to centralize power in a durable way. Agriculture allowed communities to settle and also led to class division: some people devoted all their time to food production, while others were freed to specialize in other activities, such as writing or ruling.
Thus, states, as an institution, were a social invention. Political sociologists continue to debate the origins of the state and the processes of state formation. According to one early theory of state formation, the centralized state was developed to administer large public works systems such as irrigation systems and to regulate complex economies.
Wittfogel argued that most of the earliest states were formed in hydraulic civilizations, by which he meant civilizations where leaders controlled people by controlling the water supply. Often, these civilizations relied on complex irrigation systems that had to be centrally managed. The people, therefore, had good reason to give control to a central state, but in giving up control over the irrigation system, they also gave up control over their own livelihoods and, thus, the central state gained immense control over people in general.
Modern archaeological and anthropological evidence shows that many early societies were not as centralized, despotic, or unequal as the hydraulic theory would suggest. An alternative theory of state formation focuses on the rise of more modern nation-states and explains their rise by arguing they became necessary for leveraging the resources necessary to fight and defend against wars.
Sociologist Charles Tilly is the best known theorist in this tradition. Tilly examined political, social, and technological change in Europe from the Middle Ages to the present and attempted to explain the unprecedented success of the nation-state as the dominant form of state on Earth.
As a result, only states with a sufficient amount of capital and a large population could afford to pay for their security and ultimately survive in the hostile environment. Thus, the modern states and its institutions such as taxes were created to enable war making. Ancient Persian and Greek Warriors : States may have formed to help societies organize for war. Yet another theory of state formation focuses on the long, slow, process of rationalization and bureaucratization that began with the invention of writing.
The Greeks were the first people known to have explicitly formulated a political philosophy of the state, and to have rationally analyzed political institutions. In Medieval Europe, feudalism furthered the rationalization and formalization of the state. Feudalism was based on the relationship between lord and vassal, which became central to social organization and, indeed to state organization. The Medieval state was organized by Estates, or parliaments in which key social groups negotiated with the king about legal and economic matters.
Since then, states have continued to grow more rational and bureaucratic, with expanding executive bureaucracies, such as the extensive cabinet system in the United States. Thus, states have evolved from relatively simple but powerful central powers to complex and highly organized institutions.
Key Takeaways Key Points Liberal and conservative theories of the state tend to see the state as a neutral entity separated from society and the economy. These theories treat the economic system of capitalism as a given. Marxist theories see the state as a partisan instrument that primarily serves the interests of the upper class. These theories emphasize the relationship between political power and economic power.
Anarchists believe that the state apparatus should be completely dismantled and an alternative set of social relations created.
These social relations would not be based on state power at all. Pluralists view the state as a neutral body that simply enacts the will of whichever groups dominate the electoral process. Key Terms polyarchy : a government by many persons, of whatever order or class pluralist : an advocate of pluralism in all senses anarchist : One who believes in or advocates the absence of hierarchy and authority in most forms compare anarchism , especially one who works toward the realization of such.
Characteristics of the State A state is an organized political community acting under a government. Learning Objectives Discuss the central characteristics that define the state.
A state is a polity under a system of governance with a monopoly on force. There is no undisputed definition of a state. Some states are sovereign known as sovereign states , while others are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony , wherein supreme authority lies in another state. In a federal union , the term "state" is sometimes used to refer to the federated polities that make up the federation. In international law , such entities are not considered states, which is a term that relates only to the national entity, commonly referred to as the country or nation. Most of the human population has existed within a state system for millennia ; however, for most of prehistory people lived in stateless societies. The first states arose about 5, years ago in conjunction with rapid growth of cities , invention of writing and codification of new forms of religion.
Various schools of thought consider the state to be either a neutral entity separated from society or an immoral partisan instrument. A state is an organized political community acting under a government. States may be classified as sovereign if they are not dependent on, or subject to, any other power or state. States are considered to be subject to external sovereignty, or hegemony, if their ultimate sovereignty lies in another state. A federated state is a territorial, constitutional community that forms part of a federation. Such states differ from sovereign states, in that they have transferred a portion of their sovereign powers to a federal government.
A failed state is a political body that has disintegrated to a point where basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government no longer function properly see also fragile state and state collapse. A state can also fail if the government loses its legitimacy even if it is performing its functions properly. For a stable state it is necessary for the government to enjoy both effectiveness and legitimacy. Likewise, when a nation weakens and its standard of living declines, it introduces the possibility of total governmental collapse. The Fund for Peace characterizes a failed state as having the following characteristics:. Common characteristics of a failing state include a central government so weak or ineffective that it has an inability to raise taxes or other support, and has little practical control over much of its territory and hence there is a non-provision of public services. When this happens, widespread corruption and criminality, the intervention of state and non-state actors , the appearance of refugees and the involuntary movement of populations, sharp economic decline, and military intervention from both within and without the state in question can occur.
Да нет вообще-то. Я грохнулся на землю - такова цена, которую приходится платить добрым самаритянам. Вот запястье в самом деле болит. Болван этот полицейский. Ну только подумайте.
Может быть, японский? - предположил Беккер. - Определенно. - Так вы успели его рассмотреть.
- Он нахмурился, глаза его сузились.
Я видел схему. - Да мы уже пробовали, - задыхаясь, сказала Сьюзан, пытаясь хоть чем-то помочь шефу. - Он обесточен. - Вы оба настолько заврались, что в это даже трудно поверить. - Хейл сильнее сжал горло Сьюзан.
- Какого черта вы не позвонили Стратмору.