Johnson Privilege Power And Difference Pdf
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- Privilege, Power, and Difference
- Privilege, Power, and Difference / Edition 2
- What Can We Do? Becoming Part of the Solution
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Privilege, Power, and Difference
Jump to navigation. Self-exploration is central to our growth as individuals, our relationships with others, and our ability to promote equity. Our various social identities--sex, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender, age, socioeconomic class, religion, and ability, among others--are important aspects of our selves that shape our attitudes, behaviors, worldviews, and experiences.
As we work to create and participate in diverse and democratic environments, we need to understand how our own and others' identities and related social locations affect our lives and our interactions with each other. Most of us have identities that are part of both privileged groups for example, male, white, heterosexual, middle or upper class and oppressed groups female, person of color, gay, poor or working class.
Current theory and research focuses particularly on the intersectionality of our multiple social identities, which simultaneously interact within different contexts of societal inequality see, for example, Dill and Zambrana While it is critical to understand the complexity of our whole selves, it can be useful to focus on individual aspects of identity as we develop greater awareness of our social positions.
While self-exploration can be difficult, exploring a privileged identity can be particularly hard for many people. Educators are likely to encounter resistance when asking students to undertake this kind of self-examination.
But faculty can find ways to help students move beyond fear and defensiveness. The approaches described below can apply in a wide range of contexts, from diversity workshops to classes in different disciplines. In general, educating about issues of diversity and social justice can be challenging. Students are often resistant to reevaluating their beliefs about themselves, others, and the world.
Questioning one's assumptions can feel emotionally and intellectually threatening, and students can struggle with many barriers to examining their privileged identities. Belief that "I'm just normal. This may be because people who are part of privileged groups seldom have to think about their privileged identities: they are usually surrounded by people like themselves and therefore see themselves as "just normal.
Denial that differences make a difference. When people are part of the norm, they find it easier to believe that social identities do not really matter. Therefore, they feel little need to examine how social identities impact their own and others' lives. Students may maintain that they treat everyone equally and that they do not see differences. While often made with good intentions, this claim denies aspects of who others are and the realities of others' lived experience. Students may also believe that systemic inequality is essentially a thing of the past, and that with today's "level playing field," there is no need to focus on identities and their significance.
Guilt, shame, and discomfort about privilege. An exploration of one's privileged identities can engender discomfort. Students may equate being part of the dominant group with being an oppressor--that is, a "bad person"--and they may find it unsettling to acknowledge how they might be participating in and benefiting from systems that unfairly disadvantage others. Guilt and shame often arise as people explore their biases and their privileged group's role in historical and contemporary oppression.
Students may fear they will get stuck in these feelings or be subject to blame if they explore the privileged aspects of their identities. Focus on one's oppressed group identities. People are often much more inclined to reflect on their marginalized identities than they are to think about how they are privileged.
Dominant society often makes people cognizant of their subordinated group identities, because they face obstacles and mistreatment that arise from these differences. In part to avoid feeling guilt and shame, many people prefer to focus on how they are oppressed rather than on how they are privileged.
Sometimes students ultimately feel that being part of an oppressed group is preferable to being part of a dominant group and thus attempt to shift the spotlight from how they are advantaged in one area to how they are disadvantaged in another.
The following publications are useful resources for those seeking to teach students about privileged identity:. Adams, M. Bell, and P. Griffin, eds. Teaching for diversity and social justice: A sourcebook , 2nd ed. New York: Routledge. Goodman, D. Promoting diversity and social justice: Educating people from privileged groups.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Kimmel, M. Privilege: A reader , 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Westview Press. Kivel, P. Uprooting racism: How white people can work for racial justice. As a foundation for helping students examine their dominant identities, faculty can follow some general principles for establishing effective contexts for learning. In order to create spaces that are respectful, supportive, and allow students to take emotional and intellectual risks, faculty can establish guidelines, conduct warm-up activities, and encourage gradual amounts of personal sharing.
In this environment, faculty can address students' defensive feelings and help them develop their understanding of self and others. Affirm all identities. As noted above, students are particularly apt to ignore aspects of their dominant group identities. Faculty should help students see that they are a mix of social identities, that all identities and cultures have positive qualities, and that no person is good or bad because of his or her social identities.
One approach is to have students conduct a social identity inventory, noting aspects such as their race, sex, and ethnicity in writing, by drawing, or by sculpting with different materials. After creating their inventories, students can answer questions like, "Which identities are most central to who you are, and why? What do you like about or gain from particular identities? What do you wish people understood about a particular identity?
Examine how differences matter. Once students acknowledge their various identities, faculty can help them see how different identities can lead to different perspectives, experiences, values, worldviews, and access to power and privilege.
Faculty can ask students questions to help them think about their social identities' impact: "Which identities are you most or least aware of, and why? How do you think your different identities affect who you are, your experiences, and how you see the world? Experiential activities like the popular Privilege Walk and guided imageries where students imagine a reversal of roles can help expose norms and privileges.
Being "discrimination testers" observing who gets followed in stores or waited on more quickly in restaurants, for example helps reveal how differently people are often treated. Research studies, media reports, films, interview exercises, and speaker panels can also help students learn about others' experiences. I find that personal stories tend to have the most effect on students, although a factual foundation is important to differentiate individual anecdote from systemic patterns.
Students who are ready for more complex analysis can consider how one of their privileged identities for example, their race is affected by their other identities such as sex, class, or religion , while being careful not to focus simply on how their subordinated identities diminish their privilege. Show that people receive privileges whether or not they recognize or want them. When examining power and privilege, it is critical to highlight that people from privileged groups receive advantages regardless of whether they are aware of them or want them.
People from privileged groups often do not realize that they are benefiting at someone else's expense. Students need to realize that privilege is not about intent or about "being a good person," but arises from a larger system where social identity affects access to resources and opportunities.
Films and research studies that show how people from dominant groups have greater access to jobs, housing, and medical treatment can demonstrate these dynamics.
Emphasize the systemic nature of oppression. By focusing on the systemic nature of oppression, faculty can avoid suggesting individual blame.
This approach reduces defensiveness and resistance. Although each person plays a role in systems of inequality, all systems are larger than any one individual. Students may feel freer to examine their attitudes, behaviors, prejudices, and stereotypes if they understand how everyone has been socialized to develop distorted views and fill narrow roles.
Activities that ask students to recount messages they heard while growing up about gender-appropriate behavior, for example can assist with this process. Students will find that their recollections are remarkably similar, which speaks to the pervasive nature of these messages and the power of the dominant ideology.
These discussions can give students the opportunity to reevaluate the biased messages they have internalized. Heighten investment. Faculty need to help students realize the value of exploring their privileged identities. Since different motivations may resonate with different students, it's helpful to suggest a variety of benefits: development of self-knowledge and authenticity; increased comfort in dealing with diverse people and situations; avoidance of engaging in unintentionally hurtful actions; improved ability to work through feelings of anger, guilt, and shame; increased capacity to act in ways that are more consistent with one's morals; and the skills to better address inequities.
Faculty can remind students that discomfort is part of the growing process and that by becoming more aware, they can increase their effectiveness at working in and contributing to a diverse world. Moreover, faculty can reassure students that the goal of democracy and social justice is not to simply change who benefits from unequal systems, but to ensure that all people are treated with respect and have equal access to power and resources.
Systems of oppression ultimately hurt everyone though in different ways , and all individuals have something to gain from greater social justice see Goodman Provide positive role models and options for action.
Students need ways to channel their reactions to exploring their privileged identities so they do not become overwhelmed with feelings of guilt or powerlessness. They can gain inspiration for constructive action by reading about or hearing from people with privileged identities who have worked for social justice. These role models past and present offer examples of how people from dominant groups can act as allies and show students that they can be part of a larger history and community of change agents.
Students can additionally benefit from reading about theories of social and racial identity development for example, Hardiman and Jackson ; Helms These readings identify paths toward positive privileged identities.
By emphasizing accountability and responsibility and developing options for action, faculty can help students feel empowered to create personal and social change. The process of examining ourselves, and particularly our privileged identities, is rarely simple. But its rewards are often great. By exploring their privileged identities, students can enhance their personal development, improve their relations with others, and become better citizens of the world. This exploration is easier when faculty refuse to simply cast individuals from privileged groups in a negative light, instead seeking to foster awareness and action that supports diversity and equity.
For more on understanding and addressing resistance to social justice issues, see Goodman , Dill, B. Emerging intersections: Race, class and gender in theory, policy and practice.
Dealing with student resistance: Sources and strategies.
Privilege, Power, and Difference / Edition 2
Every morning before breakfast I walk with our dogs, Sophie and Elsie, in acres of woods behind our house in the northwest hills of Connecticut. I can feel the seasons come and go. Winter lies long and deep beneath one snowfall layered on another. Come spring, fiddlehead ferns uncoil from the forest floor and then summer exhausts itself before sliding into the cool, crisp clarity of autumn. I like the walks mostly for the solitude. I can reflect on my life and the world and see things in perspective and more clearly. And I like to watch the dogs crash through the woods as they chase each other in games of tag, sniff out fresh deer scat or the trail of an animal that passed through the night before.
T his brief book is a groundbreaking tool for students and non-students alike to examine systems of privilege and difference in our society. Written in an accessible, conversational style, it links theory with engaging examples in ways that enable readers to see the underlying nature and consequences of privilege and their connection to it. This extraordinarily successful book has been used across the country, both inside and outside the classroom, to shed light on issues of power and privilege. The new third edition has been thoroughly updated, from the Obama presidency, same-sex marriage, the Occupy Movement, and Black Lives Matter to the election of Donald Trump. It includes a fifty percent increase in source citations for the skeptical reader , a new glossary, and an epilogue that explores how conflicting worldviews can make issues of privilege and oppression so difficult to deal with.
Across the nation, children of all backgrounds are experiencing a time in which discussions about race, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, religion, and culture are at the forefront of their everyday lives. Many people avoid these discussions because they fear that conversations about race, bias, and racism lead to feelings of anger, guilt, discomfort, sadness, and at times disrespect. The current state of our Union, however, no longer allows for these tough conversations to be ignored. While uncomfortable for some, school psychologists are in a position to lead or at least participate in these conversations. By using their knowledge and expertise of systems-level change, school psychologists can facilitate the dialogue to bring about positive, productive outcomes.
What Can We Do? Becoming Part of the Solution
Add to Cart. A profound and disturbing exploration of the meaning of place, lineage, and belonging, and what it means to be American. When Allan Johnson asked his dying father where he wanted his ashes to be placed, his father replied—without hesitation—that it made no difference to him at all. As a white man with Norwegian and English lineage, Johnson explores both America and the question of belonging to a place whose history holds the continuing legacy of the displacement, dispossession, and genocide of Native peoples. He is painfully aware that as a descendant of those who took the land from others, dispossessing and displacing them, he is today the beneficiary of acts he did not perform.
Jump to navigation. Self-exploration is central to our growth as individuals, our relationships with others, and our ability to promote equity. Our various social identities--sex, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender, age, socioeconomic class, religion, and ability, among others--are important aspects of our selves that shape our attitudes, behaviors, worldviews, and experiences. As we work to create and participate in diverse and democratic environments, we need to understand how our own and others' identities and related social locations affect our lives and our interactions with each other.
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Allan G. Johnson. The trouble around difference is really about privilege and power——the existence of privilege and the lopsided distribution of power that.
Сквозь строй - надежная система, но ведь АНБ - ненасытный пожиратель информации, высасывающий ее из разнообразнейших источников по всему миру. Поглощение огромных объемов информации сродни беспорядочным половым связям: какие меры предосторожности ни принимай, рано или поздно подхватишь какую-нибудь гадость. Чатрукьян просмотрел список и изумился еще .