Ecology Terms And Definitions Pdf
File Name: ecology terms and definitions .zip
Definitions have been carefully reviewed to assure accord with current professional usuage. Appreciation is tendered to biologists of the following Environmental Protection Agency activities for this service: Robert S. Terms specifically identifying or describing organisms have generally been excluded from this work.
Glossary of ecology
Login Sitemap Contact. Chinook, or king, salmon: One of seven species of salmon in the northern Pacific Ocean. There are four runs, or genetically distinct races, in the Sacramento-San Joaquin river system. Many have been made extinct and most surviving runs are in decline. One of the largest runs, the Sacramento River winter-run Chinook, has been listed as an endangered species.
Delta: The confluence of two rivers — the south-flowing Sacramento and north-flowing San Joaquin — at the upper end of San Francisco Bay. The rivers mingle with smaller Sierra Nevada and Coast Range rivers in miles of channels and sloughs. The Delta has 57 islands and hundreds of thousands of acres of marshes, mudflats and farmland. Ecosystem: A community of living organisms interacting with one another and with their physical environment, such as a rain forest, pond, or estuary.
Damage to any part of a complex system may affect the whole. Ecosystem is a concept applied to communities of different scale, signifying the interrelationships that must be considered. Estuary: A partially enclosed, coastal water body where ocean water is diluted by out-flowing fresh water. Filter Feeder: An organism that feeds on microscopic food by filtering very large volumes of water.
Because of the amount of water filtered, these organisms may tend to concentrate toxins. Filter feeders that live on bottom sediments e. Ground Water: Underground water supplies stored in aquifers. Ground water is supplied by rain which soaks into the ground and flows downward until it collects at a point where the ground is not permeable. Ground water then usually flows laterally toward a river, lake, or the ocean.
Wells tap ground water for consumptive uses. Habitat: The sum of environmental conditions in a specific place that is occupied by an organism, population, or community. Intertidal Area: The area between high and low tide levels. The alternate wetting and drying of this area makes it a transition between land and water and creates special environmental conditions. Marsh: A wetland where the dominant vegetation is non-woody plants such as grasses and sedges, as opposed to a swamp where the dominant vegetation is woody plants like trees.
Pesticide: A general term used to describe chemical substances that are used to destroy or control pest organisms.
Pesticides include herbicides, insecticides, algicides, fungicides, and others. Many of these substances are manufactured and do not occur naturally in the environment. Others, such as pyrethrum, are natural toxins which are extracted from plants and animals.
Salinity Intrusion: The movement of salt water into a body of fresh water. It can occur in either surface water or ground water bodies. Sediment: Material suspended in or settling to the bottom of a liquid, such as the sand and mud that make up much of the bottom of San Francisco Bay. Shellfish: An aquatic animal, such as a mollusk clams and snails or crustacean crabs and shrimp , having a shell or shell-like exoskeleton. Species Diversity: The number of species within a community of organisms.
Areas of high diversity are characterized by a great variety of species. A biological community with high diversity is better capable of withstanding environmental disturbances. Pollution tends to reduce biological diversity. Stormwater: Water that is generated by rainfall and is often routed into drainage systems in order to prevent flooding. Subtidal: Below the ebb and flow of the tide. Used to refer to the marine environment below mean low tide.
Treatment: Chemical, biological, or mechanical procedures applied to an industrial or municipal discharge or to other sources to remove, reduce, or neutralize pollutants. Turbidity: A measure of the amount of material suspended in the water. Increasing the turbidity of the water decreases the amount of light that penetrates the water column.
Sustained, high levels of turbidity are harmful to aquatic life. Watershed: The geographic region within which water drains into a particular river, stream, or body of water. A watershed includes hills, bottom land, and the body of water into which the land drains. Watershed boundaries are defined by the ridges of separating watersheds. Wetland: An area covered permanently, occasionally or periodically with shallow fresh or salt water.
Swamps, bogs, marshes and pools absorb flood waters, filter pollutants running off land and provide shelter and feeding grounds for fish and wildlife. Wetlands: Habitats where the influence of surface- or groundwater has resulted in development of plant or animal communities adapted to aquatic or intermittently wet conditions. Wetlands include tidal flats, shallow subtidal areas, swamps, marshes, wet meadows, bogs, and similar areas.
Sources: Bay in Peril Examiner, October , p. Your email address will not be published. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Nautilus Institute Shattuck Ave. Website developed by Computer Courage. Login Sitemap Contact Search for:. The below report is written in English. To translate the full report, please use the translator in the top right corner of the page.
Do not show me this notice in the future. Loading: The total amount of material entering a system from all sources. Spawning: The deposit of eggs or roe by fish and other aquatic life. Toxic: Poisonous, carcinogenic, or otherwise directly harmful to life. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.
Ecological terms teaching resources
Many of these words represent ideas that cannot be seen e. Check out our pages on teaching literacy here. Ecologists are interested in studying the relationships both within and between these groups. From big idea: organisms require a supply of energy and materials for which they often depend on, or compete with, other organisms. Linked knowledge: photosynthesis , evolution , respiration. Misconception [scientific idea]: organisms exist for the benefit of humans [organism exist as a result of evolution] Where to start?
Contrast with ingestion. Aerobic organisms require oxygen for their life processes. Anaerobic organisms do not require oxygen for their life processes, in fact oxygen is toxic to many of them. Most anaerobic organisms are bacteria or archaeans. Most plants are autotrophs, as are many protists and bacteria. Contrast with consumer. Autotrophs may be photoautotrophic , using light energy to manufacture food, or chemoautotrophic , using chemical energy.
Login Sitemap Contact. Chinook, or king, salmon: One of seven species of salmon in the northern Pacific Ocean. There are four runs, or genetically distinct races, in the Sacramento-San Joaquin river system. Many have been made extinct and most surviving runs are in decline. One of the largest runs, the Sacramento River winter-run Chinook, has been listed as an endangered species. Delta: The confluence of two rivers — the south-flowing Sacramento and north-flowing San Joaquin — at the upper end of San Francisco Bay. The rivers mingle with smaller Sierra Nevada and Coast Range rivers in miles of channels and sloughs.
Glossary of Ecology Terms
Causes of terminological uncertainty
This is the fourth edition of the most comprehensive and authoritative dictionary of ecology available. Written in a clear, accessible style, it contains over 6, entries on all aspects of ecology and related environmental scientific disciplines such as biogeography, genetics, soil science, geomorphology, atmospheric science, and oceanography. Coverage is wide-ranging and includes plant and animal physiology, animal behaviour, pollution, conservation, habitat management, population, evolution, environmental pollution, climatology and meteorology. It also includes many line drawings and useful appendices including estimations of population parameters, the geologic time-scale, and SI units. Fully revised, updated, and expanded, with over new entries, this new edition is invaluable to students of ecology, biology, conservation studies, environmental sciences, and professionals in related areas, as well as the general reader with an interest in the natural world. Michael Allaby, author Michael Allaby has written many books on environmental science, including the Encyclopedia of Weather and Climate and the Climate Handbook. Access to the complete content on Oxford Reference requires a subscription or purchase.
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