Female Reproductive System Anatomy And Physiology Pdf
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Understanding the anatomy and physiology of the cow's reproductive system is fundamental to good cattle management. Basic knowledge in this area will help producers do a better job of getting cows rebred, especially when using artificial insemination and estrus synchronization. It will also enable producers to better understand and control reproductive diseases and calving problems.
- 26.5A: Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
- 27.1: Anatomy and Physiology of the Male Reproductive System
- Reproductive Tract Anatomy and Physiology of the Cow
26.5A: Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
Uterus , also called womb , an inverted pear-shaped muscular organ of the female reproductive system , located between the bladder and the rectum. It functions to nourish and house a fertilized egg until the fetus , or offspring, is ready to be delivered. The uterus has four major regions: the fundus is the broad curved upper area in which the fallopian tubes connect to the uterus; the body, the main part of the uterus, starts directly below the level of the fallopian tubes and continues downward until the uterine walls and cavity begin to narrow; the isthmus is the lower, narrow neck region; and the lowest section, the cervix , extends downward from the isthmus until it opens into the vagina.
The uterus is 6 to 8 cm 2. The width of the organ varies; it is generally about 6 cm wide at the fundus and only half this distance at the isthmus. The uterine cavity opens into the vaginal cavity, and the two make up what is commonly known as the birth canal. Lining the uterine cavity is a moist mucous membrane known as the endometrium. The lining changes in thickness during the menstrual cycle , being thickest during the period of egg release from the ovaries see ovulation.
If the egg is fertilized , it attaches to the thick endometrial wall of the uterus and begins developing. If the egg is unfertilized, the endometrial wall sheds its outer layer of cells ; the egg and excess tissue are then passed from the body during menstrual bleeding.
The endometrium also produces secretions that help keep both the egg and the sperm cells alive. The components of the endometrial fluid include water , iron , potassium , sodium , chloride, glucose a sugar , and proteins. Glucose is a nutrient to the reproductive cells, while proteins aid with implantation of the fertilized egg. The other constituents provide a suitable environment for the egg and sperm cells.
The uterine wall is made up of three layers of muscle tissue. The muscle fibres run longitudinally, circularly, and obliquely, entwined between connective tissue of blood vessels , elastic fibres, and collagen fibres. This strong muscle wall expands and becomes thinner as a child develops inside the uterus. After birth, the expanded uterus returns to its normal size in about six to eight weeks; its dimensions, however, are about 1 cm 0.
The uterus is also slightly heavier and the uterine cavity remains larger. The uterus of a female child is small until puberty , when it rapidly grows to its adult size and shape. After menopause , when the female is no longer capable of having children, the uterus becomes smaller, more fibrous, and paler.
Some afflictions that may affect the uterus include infections; benign and malignant tumours ; malformations, such as a double uterus; and prolapse, in which part of the uterus becomes displaced and protrudes from the vaginal opening.
Uterus transplantation , in which a uterus from a healthy female is transplanted into the affected woman, has been considered a potential form of treatment in extreme cases of uterine disease or absence of the uterus; the first birth of a healthy infant to a uterus transplant recipient occurred in Uterus Article Media Additional Info. Print Cite verified Cite. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions.
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The uterus is an inverted pear-shaped muscular organ of the female reproductive system, located between the bladder and the rectum. It functions to nourish and house the fertilized egg until the unborn child is ready to be delivered.
Read More on This Topic. The uterus, or womb, is shaped like an inverted pear. It is a hollow, muscular organ with thick walls, and it has a glandular lining called Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.
Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. It is a hollow, muscular organ with thick walls, and it has a glandular lining called the endometrium. In an adult the uterus is 7. The uterus is a thick-walled, pear-shaped organ measuring seven centimetres about 2. It has a buttonlike lower end, the cervix,…. As the uterus enlarges, it elevates the diaphragm. This in turn pushes the heart upward, to the left, and somewhat forward, so that it is nearer the chest wall beneath the breast.
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27.1: Anatomy and Physiology of the Male Reproductive System
Uterus , also called womb , an inverted pear-shaped muscular organ of the female reproductive system , located between the bladder and the rectum. It functions to nourish and house a fertilized egg until the fetus , or offspring, is ready to be delivered. The uterus has four major regions: the fundus is the broad curved upper area in which the fallopian tubes connect to the uterus; the body, the main part of the uterus, starts directly below the level of the fallopian tubes and continues downward until the uterine walls and cavity begin to narrow; the isthmus is the lower, narrow neck region; and the lowest section, the cervix , extends downward from the isthmus until it opens into the vagina. The uterus is 6 to 8 cm 2. The width of the organ varies; it is generally about 6 cm wide at the fundus and only half this distance at the isthmus.
These organs do the following jobs within your body:. The male reproductive system is made up of internal inside your body and external outside your body parts. Together, these organs help you urinate rid your body of liquid waste materials , have sexual intercourse and make children. Most of the male reproductive system is located outside of your abdominal cavity or pelvis. The external parts of the male reproductive system include the penis, the scrotum and the testicles. The opening of the urethra — the tube that transports both semen and urine out of the body — is located at the tip of the glans penis.
This chapter will review the female and male reproductive systems and the menstrual cycle as it relates to reproduction. Female Reproductive Anatomy and.
Reproductive Tract Anatomy and Physiology of the Cow
The female reproductive system functions to produce gametes and reproductive hormones, just like the male reproductive system; however, it also has the additional task of supporting the developing fetus and delivering it to the outside world. Unlike its male counterpart, the female reproductive system is located primarily inside the pelvic cavity. Recall that the ovaries are the female gonads. The gamete they produce is called an oocyte.
Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
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ГЛАВА 108 Лифт Стратмора начал стремительно спускаться. В кабине Сьюзан жадно вдохнула свежий прохладный воздух и, почувствовав головокружение, прижалась к стенке лифта. Вскоре спуск закончился, переключились какие-то шестеренки, и лифт снова начал движение, на этот раз горизонтальное. Сьюзан чувствовала, как кабина набирает скорость, двигаясь в сторону главного здания АНБ. Наконец она остановилась, и дверь открылась.
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В некотором отдалении от него возникла фигура человека, приближавшегося медленно и неотвратимо. В руке его поблескивал пистолет. Беккер, отступая к стене, вновь обрел способность мыслить четко и ясно. Он почувствовал жжение в боку, дотронулся до больного места и посмотрел на руку.