# Thinking And Problem Solving In Psychology Pdf

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People face problems every day—usually, multiple problems throughout the day.

## Problem solving

People face problems every day—usually, multiple problems throughout the day. Sometimes these problems are straightforward: To double a recipe for pizza dough, for example, all that is required is that each ingredient in the recipe be doubled. Sometimes, however, the problems we encounter are more complex. For example, say you have a work deadline, and you must mail a printed copy of a report to your supervisor by the end of the business day.

The report is time-sensitive and must be sent overnight. You finished the report last night, but your printer will not work today.

What should you do? First, you need to identify the problem and then apply a strategy for solving the problem. When you are presented with a problem—whether it is a complex mathematical problem or a broken printer, how do you solve it? Before finding a solution to the problem, the problem must first be clearly identified. After that, one of many problem solving strategies can be applied, hopefully resulting in a solution. A problem-solving strategy is a plan of action used to find a solution.

Different strategies have different action plans associated with them [link]. For example, a well-known strategy is trial and error. When using trial and error, you would continue to try different solutions until you solved your problem. Although trial and error is not typically one of the most time-efficient strategies, it is a commonly used one. Another type of strategy is an algorithm.

An algorithm is a problem-solving formula that provides you with step-by-step instructions used to achieve a desired outcome Kahneman, You can think of an algorithm as a recipe with highly detailed instructions that produce the same result every time they are performed. Algorithms are used frequently in our everyday lives, especially in computer science.

When you run a search on the Internet, search engines like Google use algorithms to decide which entries will appear first in your list of results. Facebook also uses algorithms to decide which posts to display on your newsfeed. Can you identify other situations in which algorithms are used?

A heuristic is another type of problem solving strategy. You can think of these as mental shortcuts that are used to solve problems.

Such a rule saves the person time and energy when making a decision, but despite its time-saving characteristics, it is not always the best method for making a rational decision.

Different types of heuristics are used in different types of situations, but the impulse to use a heuristic occurs when one of five conditions is met Pratkanis, :. Working backwards is a useful heuristic in which you begin solving the problem by focusing on the end result.

Consider this example: You live in Washington, D. Knowing that Interstate 95 tends to back up any day of the week, you need to plan your route and time your departure accordingly. If you want to be at the wedding service by PM, and it takes 2. You use the working backwards heuristic to plan the events of your day on a regular basis, probably without even thinking about it.

Another useful heuristic is the practice of accomplishing a large goal or task by breaking it into a series of smaller steps. Students often use this common method to complete a large research project or long essay for school. For example, students typically brainstorm, develop a thesis or main topic, research the chosen topic, organize their information into an outline, write a rough draft, revise and edit the rough draft, develop a final draft, organize the references list, and proofread their work before turning in the project.

The large task becomes less overwhelming when it is broken down into a series of small steps. Problem-solving abilities can improve with practice. Many people challenge themselves every day with puzzles and other mental exercises to sharpen their problem-solving skills. Sudoku puzzles appear daily in most newspapers. To solve the puzzle, fill in the empty boxes with a single digit: 1, 2, 3, or 4. Here are the rules: The numbers must total 10 in each bolded box, each row, and each column; however, each digit can only appear once in a bolded box, row, and column.

Time yourself as you solve this puzzle and compare your time with a classmate. How long did it take you to solve this sudoku puzzle? You can see the answer at the end of this section. Here is another popular type of puzzle [link] that challenges your spatial reasoning skills. Connect all nine dots with four connecting straight lines without lifting your pencil from the paper:.

Did you figure it out? The answer is at the end of this section. Sam Loyd, a well-known puzzle master, created and refined countless puzzles throughout his lifetime Cyclopedia of Puzzles, n. Not all problems are successfully solved, however. What challenges stop us from successfully solving a problem?

One doorway that has always been open in the past is now locked. The person, accustomed to exiting the room by that particular doorway, keeps trying to get out through the same doorway even though the other three doorways are open. The person is stuck—but she just needs to go to another doorway, instead of trying to get out through the locked doorway. A mental set is where you persist in approaching a problem in a way that has worked in the past but is clearly not working now.

Functional fixedness is a type of mental set where you cannot perceive an object being used for something other than what it was designed for. During the Apollo 13 mission to the moon, NASA engineers at Mission Control had to overcome functional fixedness to save the lives of the astronauts aboard the spacecraft.

An explosion in a module of the spacecraft damaged multiple systems. The astronauts were in danger of being poisoned by rising levels of carbon dioxide because of problems with the carbon dioxide filters.

The engineers found a way for the astronauts to use spare plastic bags, tape, and air hoses to create a makeshift air filter, which saved the lives of the astronauts.

Check out this Apollo 13 scene where the group of NASA engineers are given the task of overcoming functional fixedness. Researchers have investigated whether functional fixedness is affected by culture. In one experiment, individuals from the Shuar group in Ecuador were asked to use an object for a purpose other than that for which the object was originally intended. For example, the participants were told a story about a bear and a rabbit that were separated by a river and asked to select among various objects, including a spoon, a cup, erasers, and so on, to help the animals.

The spoon was the only object long enough to span the imaginary river, but if the spoon was presented in a way that reflected its normal usage, it took participants longer to choose the spoon to solve the problem. The researchers wanted to know if exposure to highly specialized tools, as occurs with individuals in industrialized nations, affects their ability to transcend functional fixedness. In order to make good decisions, we use our knowledge and our reasoning.

Often, this knowledge and reasoning is sound and solid. Sometimes, however, we are swayed by biases or by others manipulating a situation. Why would the realtor show you the run-down houses and the nice house?

The realtor may be challenging your anchoring bias. An anchoring bias occurs when you focus on one piece of information when making a decision or solving a problem. The confirmation bias is the tendency to focus on information that confirms your existing beliefs.

For example, if you think that your professor is not very nice, you notice all of the instances of rude behavior exhibited by the professor while ignoring the countless pleasant interactions he is involved in on a daily basis. In other words, you knew all along that things would turn out the way they did. Representative bias describes a faulty way of thinking, in which you unintentionally stereotype someone or something; for example, you may assume that your professors spend their free time reading books and engaging in intellectual conversation, because the idea of them spending their time playing volleyball or visiting an amusement park does not fit in with your stereotypes of professors.

Finally, the availability heuristic is a heuristic in which you make a decision based on an example, information, or recent experience that is that readily available to you, even though it may not be the best example to inform your decision. These biases are summarized in [link]. Please visit this site to see a clever music video that a high school teacher made to explain these and other cognitive biases to his AP psychology students.

Were you able to determine how many marbles are needed to balance the scales in [link]? You need nine.

Were you able to solve the problems in [link] and [link]? Here are the answers [link]. Many different strategies exist for solving problems. Typical strategies include trial and error, applying algorithms, and using heuristics. To solve a large, complicated problem, it often helps to break the problem into smaller steps that can be accomplished individually, leading to an overall solution. Roadblocks to problem solving include a mental set, functional fixedness, and various biases that can cloud decision making skills.

What is functional fixedness and how can overcoming it help you solve problems? Which type of bias do you recognize in your own decision making processes? Functional fixedness occurs when you cannot see a use for an object other than the use for which it was intended. For example, if you need something to hold up a tarp in the rain, but only have a pitchfork, you must overcome your expectation that a pitchfork can only be used for garden chores before you realize that you could stick it in the ground and drape the tarp on top of it to hold it up.

An algorithm is a proven formula for achieving a desired outcome. It saves time because if you follow it exactly, you will solve the problem without having to figure out how to solve the problem. It is a bit like not reinventing the wheel. Skip to main content.

Thinking and Intelligence. Search for:. Problem Solving Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe problem solving strategies Define algorithm and heuristic Explain some common roadblocks to effective problem solving.

Everyday Connections: Solving Puzzles.

## Creative Problem Solving Pdf

Dominowski and L. Bourne, Jr. Ericsson and R. McNamara , Knowledge Representation. Ross and T. Spalding , Concepts and Categories.

Problem Solving is a structured worksheet which encourages solution-focused thinking. Clients are encouraged to identify a problem, identify multiple potential solutions, then to take steps to put a solution into action. Problem Solving is a helpful intervention whenever clients present with difficulties, dilemmas, and conundrums, or when they experience repetitive thought such as rumination or worry. It is not for the therapist to pass judgement or to impose their preferred solution. The first step in problem solving is to identify a problem, difficulty, or dilemma which is bothering you, or about which you have been ruminating or worrying. Helpful things to ask yourself are:.

Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods in an orderly manner to find solutions to problems. Some of the problem-solving techniques developed and used in philosophy , artificial intelligence , computer science , engineering , mathematics , medicine and societies in general are related to mental problem-solving techniques studied in psychology and cognitive sciences. The term problem solving has a slightly different meaning depending on the discipline. For instance, it is a mental process in psychology and a computerized process in computer science. There are two different types of problems: ill-defined and well-defined; different approaches are used for each. Well-defined problems have specific end goals and clearly expected solutions, while ill-defined problems do not.

PDF | Critical thinking skills and problem solving ability is very helpful in educational psychology courses to train student teachers in solving.

## Thinking: Problem Solving and Reasoning

Bourne et al. Earlier we observed that these real-life problems are faced by adults of all ages. Our concern is with what happens to problem-solving proficiency over the course of the adult segment of the life span and with what accounts for age changes in proficiency.

Describe the four basic elements of the system for understanding creativity. Complex problem solving CPS emerged in the last 30 years in Europe as a new part of the psychology of thinking and problem solving. Thinking and Problem Solving In Activity 1 You may not be able to solve the problem, because of the mental set that one has to keep the lines within the grid of nine dots. For this reason, the title now focuses on community health management rather than the concept of problem-solving alone.

Problems can be solved faster and better by the teams themselves with these problem solving steps. But despite the evident need for such skills, schools are not committed to teaching them. This activity can be integrated into any course to aid in the development of. A problem.

### Critical thinking and problem solving

Problem solving refers to cognitive processing directed at achieving a goal when the problem solver does not initially know a solution method. A problem exists when someone has a goal but does not know how to achieve it. Problems can be classified as routine or nonroutine, and as well defined or ill defined. The major cognitive processes in problem solving are representing, planning, executing, and monitoring. The major kinds of knowledge required for problem solving are facts, concepts, procedures, strategies, and beliefs. Classic theoretical approaches to the study of problem solving are associationism, Gestalt, and information processing. Current issues and suggested future issues include decision making, intelligence and creativity, teaching of thinking skills, expert problem solving, analogical reasoning, mathematical and scientific thinking, everyday thinking, and the cognitive neuroscience of problem solving.

Department of Psychology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. Keywords: Problem solving, thinking, reasoning, human intelligence, cognitive.

- Осталось девять минут. Сьюзан, не слушая его, повернулась к Соши. - Сколько там этих сироток? - спросила .

Скажи мне, что происходит. Сьюзан прищурилась. Ты сам отлично знаешь, что происходит. - А ну-ка пропусти меня, Грег, - сказала.  - Мне нужно в туалет.

Коллеги-криптографы прозвали его Галит - таково научное название каменной соли. Хейл же был уверен, что галит - некий драгоценный камень, поэтому считал, что это прозвище вполне соответствует его выдающимся умственным способностям и прекрасному телосложению. Будь он менее самонадеян, он, конечно же, заглянул бы в энциклопедию и обнаружил, что это не что иное, как солевой осадок, оставшийся после высыхания древних морей.

У меня нет на это времени, - сказала себе Сьюзан. На поиски вируса может уйти несколько дней. Придется проверить тысячи строк программы, чтобы обнаружить крохотную ошибку, - это все равно что найти единственную опечатку в толстенной энциклопедии.

Дело было вовсе не и кольце, a в человеческой плоти.

## Data flow analysis theory and practice pdf

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