Transformational And Transactional Leadership And Their Effects On Creativity In Groups Pdf
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- How a Transactional Leadership Style Works
- Diversity as an aspect of effective leadership: integrating and moving forward
- The qualities of transformational leaders and what distinguishes them from transactional leaders
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How a Transactional Leadership Style Works
Transactional leaders are concerned about the status quo, while transformational leaders are more change-oriented. Leadership can be described as transactional or transformational. Transactional leaders focuses on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance. They are concerned about the status quo and day-to-day progress toward goals. Transformational leaders work to enhance the motivation and engagement of followers by directing their behavior toward a shared vision.
While transactional leadership operates within existing boundaries of processes, structures, and goals, transformational leadership challenges the current state and is change-oriented. Transactional leadership promotes compliance with existing organizational goals and performance expectations through supervision and the use of rewards and punishments. Transactional leaders are task- and outcome-oriented. Especially effective under strict time and resource constraints and in highly-specified projects, this approach adheres to the status quo and employs a form of management that pays close attention to how employees perform their tasks.
A transformational approach focuses on individual strengths and weaknesses of employees and on enhancing their capabilities and their commitment to organizational goals, often by seeking their buy-in for decisions. Transactional leaders focus on performance, promote success with rewards and punishments, and maintain compliance with organizational norms. Transactional leaders focus on managing and supervising their employees and on facilitating group performance.
The role of a transactional leader is primarily passive, in that it sets policy and assessment criteria and then intervenes only in the event of performance problems or needs for exceptions.
Transactional leaders seek to maintain compliance within existing goals and expectations and the current organizational culture. They are extrinsic motivators who encourage success through the use of rewards and punishment. Benchmarking Measures Performance : Results are the paramount concern to a transactional leader.
Performance ratings can be used to measure results. Transactional leadership satisfies lower-level needs but addresses those at a high level only to a limited degree. Transactional leadership can be very effective in the right settings. Coaches of sports teams are a good example of appropriate transactional leadership. The rules for a sports team allow for little flexibility, and adherence to organizational norms is key; even so, effective coaches can motivate their team members to play and win, even at risk to themselves.
Transformational leaders exhibit individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized influence. Transformational leaders challenge followers with an attractive vision and tie that vision to a strategy for its achievement.
Transformational leadership comprises four types of behavior:. Leading the team : Transformational leaders inspire their employees to do more. This behavior can include the following actions:. Transformational leaders encourage followers to be innovative and creative. Intellectual stimulation springs from leaders who establish safe conditions for experimentation and sharing ideas. They tackle old problems in a novel fashion and inspire employees to think about their conventional methods critically and share new ideas.
This type of behavior includes:. Leaders with an inspiring vision challenge followers to leave their comfort zones, communicate optimism about future goals, and provide meaning for the task at hand.
Purpose and meaning provide the energy that drives a group forward. The visionary aspects of leadership are supported by communication skills that make the vision understandable, precise, powerful, and engaging. Followers are willing to invest more effort in their tasks; they are encouraged and optimistic about the future and believe in their abilities. Behaviors that demonstrate inspirational motivation include:. Transformational leaders act as role models for their followers.
Transformational leaders must embody the values that the followers should be learning and internalizing. The foundation of transformational leadership is the promotion of consistent vision and values. Transformational leaders guide followers by providing them with a sense of meaning and challenge. They foster the spirit of teamwork and commitment in the following ways:.
The full-range leadership theory blends the features of transactional and transformational leadership into one comprehensive approach. Assess the intrinsic value of blending transactional leadership behaviors with transformational leadership behaviors. The full-range theory of leadership seeks to blend the best aspects of transactional and transformational leadership into one comprehensive approach.
Transactional leadership focuses on exchanges between leaders and followers. Transformational leadership deals with how leaders help followers go beyond individual interests to pursue a shared vision. These two approaches are neither mutually exclusive, nor do leaders necessarily exhibit only one or the other set of behaviors. Depending on the objectives and the situation, a leader may move from using one approach to the other as needed.
Management researcher Bernard Bass developed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire MLQ , consisting of 36 items that reflect the leadership aspects associated with both approaches. The MLQ also includes several characteristics of a more passive leadership approach known as laissez-faire. Respondents are asked to think about a leader they work with and to rate how frequently the individual exhibits the leadership behaviors.
Search for:. Types of Leaders. Transactional Versus Transformational Leaders Transactional leaders are concerned about the status quo, while transformational leaders are more change-oriented. Key Takeaways Key Points Transactional leadership works within set established goals and organizational boundaries, while a transformational approach challenges the status quo and is more future-oriented.
Transactional leadership emphasizes organization, performance evaluation and rewards, and is task- and outcome-oriented. Transformational leadership focuses on motivating and engaging followers with a vision of the future. Key Terms Buy-in : In management and decision making, the commitment of interested or affected parties often called stakeholders to agree to support a decision, often by having been involved in its formulation.
Key Behaviors of Transactional Leaders Transactional leaders focus on performance, promote success with rewards and punishments, and maintain compliance with organizational norms. Key Takeaways Key Points Transactional leaders focus on managing and supervising their employees and on group performance. Transactional leaders promote success by doling out both rewards and punishments contingent on performance. Transactional leaders work within existing organizational structures and shape their work according to the current organizational culture.
Key Behaviors of Transformational Leaders Transformational leaders exhibit individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized influence. Learning Objectives Explain the varying approaches and behaviors that define transformational leadership.
Key Takeaways Key Points Transformational leaders show individualized consideration to followers by paying attention to and meeting the needs of followers. Transformational leaders stimulate ideas and creativity from followers by creating a safe environment to challenge the status quo. Transformational leaders have a vision that inspires and motivates followers to achieve important goals.
Transformational leaders serve as role models for their followers, allow them to identify with a shared organizational vision, and provide a sense of meaning and achievement.
Key Terms Transformational Leadership : An approach to leading that enhances the motivation, morale, and performance of followers through a variety of mechanisms. A Blended Approach to Leadership The full-range leadership theory blends the features of transactional and transformational leadership into one comprehensive approach.
Learning Objectives Assess the intrinsic value of blending transactional leadership behaviors with transformational leadership behaviors. Key Takeaways Key Points Transactional and transformational leadership are not mutually exclusive, and leaders often demonstrate traits associated with both approaches.
The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire is used in diagnosing leadership styles and for developing leadership. Leaders use elements of transformational and transactional leadership as the situation calls for them. Key Terms Transformational Leadership : A theory of leading that enhances the motivation, morale, and performance of followers through a variety of mechanisms.
Transactional Leadership : A theory of leading that focuses on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance; leader promotes compliance through rewards and punishments. Also known as managerial leadership. Licenses and Attributions. CC licensed content, Shared previously.
Diversity as an aspect of effective leadership: integrating and moving forward
In this CQ Dossier we describe the qualities of transformational leaders and how they gain commitment to their vision and the mission of the organization. We draw on the main theories of transformational leadership to present the key behaviors that distinguish transformational leaders from transactional leaders. In addition, we have a look at how transformational leaders show individualized consideration, intellectually stimulate their followers, provide inspirational motivation and idealized influence. Transformational leaders work with their employees to implement change. Transformational leaders create a vision for their followers and guide the change through inspiration and motivation. They are excellent role models and their followers emulate many of their actions. We describe the main dimensions of transformational leadership and explain those qualities that distinguish transformational leaders from managers who use a transactional leadership style.
We discuss implications of these results for research and practice. Learn About the New eReader. Downloaded 84 times in the past 12 months. Published online 30 November Published in print 1 December We contributed equally to this project, and thus the order of authorship is alphabetical.
The qualities of transformational leaders and what distinguishes them from transactional leaders
The purpose of this paper is to elaborate an integrative framework that positions diversity considerations in a continuum of various leadership theories. The authors thus seek to differentiate between distinct leadership styles and assess their potential in fostering inclusive leader behaviors. The authors proceed to a brief review of the extant literature on diversity leadership by distinguishing between diverse followers and diverse leaders on one hand, and leadership styles in diverse and heterogeneous teams, on the other.
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