History Of Rock And Roll Ed Ward Pdf
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- History Of Rock And Roll
- Researching Rock n' Roll: A Guide to Reference Sources
- The History of Rock & Roll: Volume 1: 1920-1963
- Jimi Hendrix
In mid-nineteenth-century rural Southern America, which is as good a place as any to start this story, music wasn't something you did. Or, rather, it could have been just one of the things you did, if you did it, like smoking hams, mending the roof and the fences, and hoeing the vegetable patch. Black or white, Northern or Southern, rural life consisted of one job after another, just to stay alive.
History Of Rock And Roll
In mid-nineteenth-century rural Southern America, which is as good a place as any to start this story, music wasn't something you did. Or, rather, it could have been just one of the things you did, if you did it, like smoking hams, mending the roof and the fences, and hoeing the vegetable patch. Black or white, Northern or Southern, rural life consisted of one job after another, just to stay alive. Sometimes, particularly among African Americans, music accompanied work, as it also did among sailors or excavating crews.
Along with chain gang songs and songs laborers sang while laying or mending railroad tracks, this music gave solidarity to groups of people engaged in common work.
White rural people, who often lived close to blacks, especially in farming communities, had their own uses for music: women in particular memorized long ancient stories in the forms of ballads handed down through the generations and often sang them doing "women's work" like spinning, weaving, or sewing, or else used them as lullabies.
Both groups sang communally in church, and both used instruments for socializing and to play music for dancing: fiddle, which the whites had brought with them along with a lot of its repertoire from the old country and which blacks had picked up during slavery from the masters; banjo, which was based on a West African instrument called the banjar among many other names and, being easily made from things one had around wood, hide, gut strings , caught on right away; and guitar, which, being store-bought, was precious and at least at first not in common use.
What's shocking to us these days is the extent to which black string-band music from this era, some of which, performed by old men, was recorded in the s by the black folklorist John Work, sounds like white string-band music. Poor rural people didn't worry as much about race as they did about survival, and more than one of the early string bands to record in the s was biracial.
A good tune was a good tune, and if one group learned it from the other, that was how the process worked; any variation or change was more likely up to the individual than to a folk tradition. But the important thing was, none of it was professional. It was a part of everyday life that existed around events like the annual hog butchering or the happy event of a friend's visit or a wedding, or simply to blow off steam after a week's work. It was, in the purest sense of the term, folk music.
Which isn't to say that America didn't have professional showbiz back then; it was just limited to the cities. Rural people had neither money nor transportation — nor, in most cases, the inclination — to engage with the wandering troupes of minstrels, light opera singers, and, after , ensembles singing Negro spirituals, who descended from the Fisk Jubilee Singers.
This branch of entertainment was for the middle class and up. It was performed by professionals, people who worked at making their art and were paid for it. And except for providing venues, a template for touring, and a few songs leaking into the folk pool, it doesn't have too much to do with our story, at least not until the very last days of the s, when the phonograph was born.
They had to be: the acoustic signal coming off the disc through a steel or cactus-thorn needle needed room for amplification in a large chamber, although the fascinated owners still had to sit close to the machine. You couldn't play a record in the next room and expect to hear it. What were people listening to? The kind of music people of their economic class — upper middle and above — might be expected to listen to included classics, light classics, operatic arias, songs from the musical theater that was thriving in New York, patriotic music John Philip Sousa's band was popular, and not just for his famous marches, since he composed other things for them , comic sketches from the vaudeville stage often in Jewish, Negro, or Irish dialect , and the occasional novelty, like a Negro jubilee ensemble singing spirituals or, even more novel, the Dinwiddie Colored Quartet's mashup of "Dem Bones" with what sounds like a blackface minstrel comedy interlude.
Off the record, independent of this mainstream, some major changes were happening. For one thing, medicine shows, a sort of low-rent spinoff of the touring minstrel show, began to appear in rural Southern America, bringing black and white performers — sometimes together — to communities that had never before seen professional entertainers. They'd play and sing and prepare the locals for a pitch for some miracle drug mostly alcohol, with additives that could be anything from opium to gasoline that would do incredible things and was available just until the caravan pulled out of town for a low, low price.
The people who performed at these shows were considered lowlifes by polite society, but out in the boondocks, they were visitors from another world. If the medicine show was from far away, they might well be exposing the locals to instrumental styles and even forms of music they'd never heard before.
In addition, the better-funded medicine shows handed out "singers," cheap booklets with some of the songs performed in the show, thereby spreading everything from Stephen Foster songs to hymns and drinking songs to places where they'd been previously unknown. One "singer" was found to have had half its contents recorded by one act or another during the s and '30s.
The medicine shows lasted almost a century and became laboratories for young musicians honing their performing skills and welcome employment for entertainers who were too rural for the vaudeville stage.
Starting in the very last years of the nineteenth century, a new musical form emerged out of nowhere in the Deep South. Nobody can pinpoint the place or time when blues was invented, nor does it have a legendary inventor, but it did have a chronicler in the person of W. Handy, a trumpet player and bandleader from Memphis, who was famously waiting for a train in the early days of the twentieth century in rural Tutwiler, Mississippi, when a ragged black man with a guitar sat down next to him and, running a knife blade over the strings, began to sing "the weirdest music I ever heard," improvising lyrics about the train they were waiting for.
Handy went on to make much out of his "discovery," even advertising himself as the "father of the blues," but blues was an evolution from other black traditions, including the "songster" genre, which survived in the work of "Ragtime Texas" Henry Thomas, Mississippi John Hurt, and Mance Lipscomb, among others, and is responsible for such black ballads as "Frankie and Johnny," "Stackolee," and "The Titanic.
Other blues were made up of what are called "floating verses" like the one just quoted, or the blues would start with a story and go on to floating verses that fit the mood. Either way, the form had the advantage of having spaces between lines where an instrumentalist could play some licks, and the space between verses for more extended solo work. Gertrude "Ma" Rainey, one of the first to find fame, was a centerpiece of the Rabbit Foot Minstrels, one of the top black touring outfits, and her influence on younger singers was immense.
The rise of urban blues was parallel to and to some extent integrated with the rise of the music that came to be called jazz. Although it was undeniably a popular music — far more popular than some of the other music of its time — jazz only concerns us here as an ingredient of other forms. It's worth noting that many jazz scholars consider the blues-singing women of the s as jazz musicians while ignoring or discounting rural blues performers.
The harmonic structure of blues, however, was with jazz from its very earliest days, and the power of the word is evident in the way songs that aren't blues at all — W.
Handy's "St. Louis Blues," to give a prominent example — use the word, if not the form. If blues was a central ingredient to black music in the Deep South, there was another form that arrived about the same time that was just as important on the eastern seaboard: ragtime. This was a piano-based, composed and notated, syncopated musical form that came into being simultaneously with the earliest jazz — and in many of the same venues.
Ragtime might be what the "piano professor" was playing in whorehouses with enough class to have a parlor with a piano, but it quickly escaped its seedy origins to become a fad in vaudeville and the politer parlors of the middle class. Most notably, it was promoted by the sheet music publishers who had Scott Joplin, a black pianist with some training, under contract.
Joplin was hardly the only ragtime composer to make money for an ambitious publisher, but his prodigious output included music for small instrumental ensembles and an opera, among other works. And while ragtime wasn't particularly transposable to the guitar, its ideas were, and so guitarists who heard pianists playing a form of ragtime called barrelhouse in turpentine camps in Georgia tried out the harmonies and came up with intricate fingerpicking techniques to form melodies on them and invented a guitar style that mimicked the multiple lines and tricky rhythms of the piano music.
This became the basis of the black rural popular music of Georgia and the Carolinas. Another place where ragtime's ideas showed up was in the medicine shows, where comic songs were common. Again, the chord progressions made a great base for a type of music that became known as hokum, which spread to both the black and white traditions. White medicine show performers like Uncle Dave Macon and Harmonica Frank Floyd salted their repertoires with hokum, and black performers in Memphis made it a signature of the city's music, as it was largely what the jug bands there played Gus Cannon of Cannon's Jug Stompers had a long career with the shows , as well as the successful Memphis Sheiks.
Not surprisingly, all these groups were in high demand among the city's moneyed whites for party entertainment. These developments happened slowly, and they didn't all happen in the same places at the same time, since there was no mass media even remotely interested in this minority-interest stuff — and in some places, they didn't happen at all. But soon after the end of World War I, enough of these new sounds were in evidence for the immense changes that would come in the s and kick off the arrival of a distinctly American wave of music.
On February 14 or maybe August it wasn't considered important enough to keep notes , , a black vaudeville singer took advantage of another singer's canceled session to cut a record. Mamie Smith was backed by a band assembled by Perry Bradford, a young black veteran of minstrel shows, songwriter, and what would today be called record producer who'd convinced the fledgling Okeh Records label that black people owned phonographs in sufficient quantity to buy records.
He'd worked with Smith before, when she'd recorded two of his tunes, "That Thing Called Love" and "You Can't Keep a Good Man Down," and the record had sold between fifty thousand and one hundred thousand copies — a very respectable number. When the opportunity to record her again came along, he grabbed two more of his songs and gave them to her.
It sold seventy-five thousand copies in a month and over a million copies in its first year, making Smith a star, giving Bradford the chance to work with other up-and-coming stars like Louis Armstrong, putting Okeh Records on the map, and igniting a craze for blues. Female blues singers suddenly appeared on records, singing blues songs that actually were blues songs, and — curiously enough — many of them were named Smith: Bessie, Alberta, Clara, and Trixie, among others.
Most of them adopted the elaborate gowns, big hats, and flashy jewelry that Mamie had introduced as blues singer attire, and sang songs in the classic AAB form.
They didn't just come out of the blue; a woman named Gertrude "Ma" Rainey had been singing blues for years, in an act with her husband, as Assassinators of the Blues. At first, the Raineys toured with the famous Rabbit Foot Minstrels, a show in which, much later, young Rufus Thomas began a career that would make him a Memphis icon well into the second half of the century, and then they graduated to a series of tent shows.
Ma Rainey didn't leap on Mamie Smith's bandwagon, but when she did start recording in , she made over one hundred sides. The label she recorded for is worth noting: Paramount Records was a spinoff of the Wisconsin Chair Company in Port Washington, Wisconsin, which had started making Victrolas as they became popular. In , they decided to form a record company to make something to play on them. The first Paramount releases were the usual mixed bag of stuff: Hawaiian tunes, Irish novelties, comic routines, and, for some reason, a lot of marimba orchestra records.
Then Mamie Smith woke them up, and they announced that they were entering what was beginning to be called the "race market. Mayo "Ink" Williams, to a possibility. Williams had been hanging around Chicago, doing small-time hustles, and one day he headed to Port Washington to talk to Paramount. He later remembered the walk from the train station, with little kids staring at him and, the more adventurous ones, touching him. They'd never seen a black person before. Williams told Paramount that he knew the black music world well — didn't he live in Chicago, a mecca of African American music-making?
Williams didn't even like blues — he was more partial to classical music — but considered it part of his people's heritage. This resulted in his being open to blues besides the kind played on the vaudeville stages: a Paramount dealer in Dallas alerted Williams to a street performer who was drawing good crowds, and Williams sent for him. It was a wise investment; Blind Lemon Jefferson was phenomenally popular and recorded close to one hundred sides for Paramount before his mysterious death in Chicago in Some of his songs became classics, and "Matchbox Blues" was recorded by Carl Perkins and by the Beatles.
As if that weren't enough of a claim on immortality, Jefferson's "lead boys," youngsters he'd hire to guide him along the streets, included Aaron "T-Bone" Walker and Joshua White. Jefferson's success opened the door for other guitar-playing blues performers of a rural bent.
Blind Arthur Blake, a guitar virtuoso about whom absolutely nothing is known for certain, recorded close to eighty sides for Paramount before vanishing as mysteriously as he came, preserving a guitar style that has great hunks of jazz and ragtime in it.
Researching Rock n' Roll: A Guide to Reference Sources
As Ward mentions in his preface, it quickly enters a period that he and his contemporaries covered as it was happening. With so much ground to cover, Ward rarely lingers on one story or subject for long. He sets out not just to summarize a span of years but a dizzying array of musical movements, from the British Invasion to folk and folk-rock, acid rock, Motown, Memphis soul, singer-songwriters, funk, and prog-rock. Switching from miniatures to overview mode, the book undergoes several jarring tempo shifts, linking disparate topics with threads that seem carefully stitched and tenuous at once. Ward also documents the rise of rock criticism, and particularly its self-conscious canonization in the pages of Rolling Stone. Ward casts an equally dispassionate eye on such presumptively era-defining events as Woodstock.
Clockwork Angels is the twentieth studio album by Rush. Then the author of a book called something like By Drummers For Drummers asked for some thoughts on recording. Clockwork Angel Manga The Shadowhunters Arguably his main reason for walking away in was to be there for his daughter Olivia. Read online. Yep, I have that book. The book also contains many.
Read PDF History Of Rock And Roll John Costa. History Of Rock And Roll The History of Rock & Roll, Volume 1: by Ed Ward. Louis Menand on the.
The History of Rock & Roll: Volume 1: 1920-1963
To many, the s recall an idyllic era when everyone conformed and everyone lived simply and happily. Beneath this conformity, people were stirring and new ideas were simmering; some would not explode until the s. Television became a powerful medium. Commercials sold everything from chewing gum to presidents. The increased purchase of television sets was indicative of mid-century society's materialistic mood.
Southern rock , popular music style combining blues jams and boogie licks with lyrics declaring fierce regional pride. Its aggressive, unpretentious sound helped revitalize American rock in the s.
The book is definitelyfilled with intriguing snippets but ultimately a bit disappointing. That said I sure have to give him credit for pulling this alltogether in one beginning volume and thank the gods that there isan index! One thing I really miss here are pictures, there are sovery few and those not well reproduced. It was fun to read as I didit, a few minutes a day for lunch. I remember most of the music sofor me its pleasure was largely mnemonic.
You will investigate the importance of radio to American life in the years leading up to the birth of Rock and Roll and be able report your findings to the rest of the class. Early Radio in the s. Murrow in London Video: Franklin D. You will use a website created by the Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation at the Smithsonian Institution to answer the questions on the handout. We will go over these answers in class.
Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Want to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Other editions. Enlarge cover.
Сьюзан вдруг поняла, что смеется и плачет одновременно. Коммандер спас ей жизнь. Стоя в темноте, она испытывала чувство огромного облегчения, смешанного, конечно же, с ощущением вины: агенты безопасности приближаются. Она глупейшим образом попала в ловушку, расставленную Хейлом, и Хейл сумел использовать ее против Стратмора.
Это. - подумала она удивленно и с облегчением и попыталась выскользнуть из-под .
Когда он попытался обойти Стратмора, тот преградил ему дорогу. Лестничная площадка, на которой они стояли, была совсем крохотной. Они сцепились.
Сьюзан, чуть подтолкнув, усадила его на место.
Она помахала ему рукой. - Подождите, мистер. Ну что еще? - застонал. - Хочет предъявить мне обвинение во вторжении в личную жизнь. Девушка волокла за собой туристскую сумку.
Она представила себе эти буквы и начала менять их местами. Ndakota… Kadotan… Oktadan… Tandoka… Сьюзан почувствовала, как ноги у нее подкосились.