Human Population And Environment Project Pdf
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- Unit 1 The Earth System and its Components
- Human overpopulation
- What Are Environmental Problems Due to Population Growth?
Learn More. We cannot have a sustainable planet without stabilizing population. Any truly meaningful conservation and sustainability efforts must take the expanding human population footprint into consideration. Globally, over , people are added every day — each needs sufficient land, water, shelter, food, and energy for a decent life. In the 21st century, working on the population issue means working against oppressive cultural practices such as the low status of women around the world, gender-based violence, genital mutilation, forced prostitution, and child marriage.
Unit 1 The Earth System and its Components
One of the most compelling reasons for studying environmental science and management is the fact that, in the view of many leading authorities, we are now experiencing an environmental crisis; indeed, many authors have claimed that the present environmental crisis is unprecedented in its magnitude, pace and severity Park Awareness of this environmental crisis has grown since the s, partly as a result of the prominence given to major so-called 'environmental' disasters such as the Sahelian droughts of the s and s and the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in Consequently, a wide range of environmental problems has emerged; those problems include anthropogenic climate change 'global warming' , the depletion of stratospheric ozone the 'ozone hole' , the acidification of surface waters 'acid rain' , the destruction of tropical forests, the depletion and extinction of species, and the precipitous decline of biodiversity.
Yet, while all of these problems have physical environmental manifestations, their causes - and their potential solutions - are invariably bound up with human attitudes, beliefs, values, needs, desires, expectations, and behaviours. Thus the symptoms of the environmental crisis cannot be regarded purely as physical problems requiring solutions by environmental 'specialists'; instead, they are intrinsically human problems and they are intimately related to the question of what it means to be human.
At this point, a very brief overview of the environmental crisis may be helpful. It is important to emphasise that a wide range of views about the nature and severity of the current environmental crisis exists, and some of the issues are highly controversial. Nevertheless, there is broad agreement that the environmental crisis encompasses the following main issues. Some issues associated with the environmental crisis are not strictly 'environmental', but are closely related to environmental issues.
They encompass a range of economic, social, political and technological issues. Whilst not necessarily part of the environmental crisis, human populations are also faced with ongoing threats due to the occurrence of natural disasters such as earthquakes, landslides, floods, tsunamis and wildfires. Yet whilst these hazards may be natural in origin, it is important to acknowledge that human vulnerability to natural disasters is generally increasing, not least because human populations and settlements are growing in many marginal and dangerous areas, such as floodplains.
Hence unsustainable practices - such as the construction of settlements on floodplains, or the intensive cultivation of marginal hill slope lands - may greatly increase the impacts of natural disasters on human societies and economies. The causes of the environmental crisis have been the subject of considerable debate. However, in general, its main causes are now acknowledged to be:. For these reasons, amongst others, the environmental crisis presents an immense challenge to policy-makers and to many other organisations and individuals who must find creative responses to these issues - ideally, within an overall policy framework that promotes a sufficiently strong version of sustainable development.
It occurs largely as a result of the combustion of fossil fuels, emissions from agriculture and pastoralism, and land-use changes that accompany the destruction, clearance and burning of forests.
Climate change already has observable ecological and social effects, and its projected impacts could potentially result in profound changes in global mean surface temperature, sea level, ocean circulation, precipitation patterns, climatic zones, species distributions and ecosystem function.
Stratospheric ozone depletion : the depletion of stratospheric ozone due to the pollution of the atmosphere by halocarbons such as chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs is another serious environmental issue. It is a significant concern because the lack of protective ozone at high altitudes results in increased levels of harmful solar ultraviolet UV-B radiation reaching the earth's surface, causing a range of health-related and ecological impacts.
Degraded air quality : other forms of air pollution are also significant, particularly at regional and local scales, as they may seriously degrade air quality; worldwide, approximately one billion people inhabit areas - mainly industrial cities - where unhealthy levels of air pollution occur.
Many air pollutants are responsible for the degradation of air quality, but some key pollutants include particulate matter such as soot , tropospheric ozone, oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulphur, lead and various aromatic compounds such as benzene.
Many air pollutants may cause or aggravate respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses; some are known carcinogens; and some can cause damage to vegetation and, in turn, produce a range of ecological effects. Degraded water quality : similarly, water quality can be seriously degraded by contamination with pollutants, giving rise to a range of health-related and ecological effects such as the degradation of coral reefs.
A major source of water pollution is the terrestrial run-off to inshore waters that occurs in many coastal locations; such run-off may contain significantly elevated levels of nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural land and from human settlements. Many other human activities lead to water pollution, including mining and industrial processes, which may create toxic effluent. Oil spills, accumulation of plastics and the bioaccumulation of persistent organic chemicals are some of the other causes of serious degradation of the marine environment.
Scarcity of fresh water : besides the pollution of freshwater sources, there are a variety of other reasons for the scarcity of fresh water for drinking in many parts of the world - many of which are related to poor water resource management practices.
For instance, the over-abstraction of water from rivers results in water shortages and problems of salinisation downstream. Irrigation practices may also be responsible for the depletion of local water sources and the salinisation of irrigated land. Vast differences in water security exist at the global scale, reflecting both demand for fresh water and the scale of public and private investment in water supplies, treatment and distribution.
Land contamination : land contamination occurs as a result of chemical or radioactive pollution, especially by long-lived persistent chemical species that enter the soil. Land contamination may cause profound ecological effects and it presents severe constraints to development, since contaminated land must typically be rehabilitated before it is safe to use for agriculture, construction or recreation. Deforestation : it has been estimated that around half of the world's mature forests have been cleared by humans.
Deforestation occurs for a variety of reasons, but the majority of deforestation now occurs when tropical forests are cleared for agriculture and pastoralism; other reasons include the destruction of trees for charcoal production and the selective logging of forests for timber.
Soil erosion and degradation : concerns about soil erosion, soil degradation and the problem of desertification have become acute. In part, these concerns are based on the historical experiences of dramatic soil erosion and transport in New World countries including the USA during the 'Dust Bowl' of the s and Australia.
Whilst analyses of the problems of soil erosion and degradation have become more sophisticated, recently, it is clear that these problems continue to have important consequences for agricultural and pastoral productivity as well as for the functioning of natural ecosystems. Land use change and habitat loss : these issues overlap with others, such as deforestation, but they are broader and include the clearance of forest for agriculture and pastoralism, the transformation of land during urban growth, the development of new infrastructure such as roads , the drainage of wetlands, and the destruction and removal of coastal mangrove forests.
The impact of land use change on forest and grassland environments is depicted in 1. Biodiversity loss : many plant and animal species are threatened with extinction, due to the spread of disease, the destruction and degradation of their habitats, and direct exploitation. In , UNEP estimated that one-quarter of the world's mammal species and around one-tenth of the world's bird species faced a significant risk of total extinction.
Threats to biodiversity are not confined to terrestrial ecosystems; serious concerns have been raised about the future of marine and coastal wildlife species as a result of the pollution, over-exploitation and acidification of ocean and seas.
List the main issues that comprise the environmental crisis. As far as possible, categorise those issues according to a spatial scale; b time scale; and c the prospects for finding effective technological or policy solutions.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The value placed upon large families especially among under-privileged rural populations in less developed countries who benefit least from the process of development , the assurance of security for the elderly, the ability of women to control reproduction, and the status and rights of women within families and within societies are significant cultural factors affecting family size and the demand for family planning services. Even with a demand for family planning services, the adequate availability of and access to family planning and other reproductive health services are essential in facilitating slowing of the population growth rate. Also, access to education and the ability of women to determine their own economic security influence their reproductive decisions.
Human Impact on Biodiversity. Trisha Hostetter. Biology Senior Seminar. November 21, Thesis: Humans affect biodiversity on many levels and it is important to realize these effects on an individual, societal, and government level and attempt to minimize them in order to ensure a future for humanity.
One of the most compelling reasons for studying environmental science and management is the fact that, in the view of many leading authorities, we are now experiencing an environmental crisis; indeed, many authors have claimed that the present environmental crisis is unprecedented in its magnitude, pace and severity Park Awareness of this environmental crisis has grown since the s, partly as a result of the prominence given to major so-called 'environmental' disasters such as the Sahelian droughts of the s and s and the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in Consequently, a wide range of environmental problems has emerged; those problems include anthropogenic climate change 'global warming' , the depletion of stratospheric ozone the 'ozone hole' , the acidification of surface waters 'acid rain' , the destruction of tropical forests, the depletion and extinction of species, and the precipitous decline of biodiversity. Yet, while all of these problems have physical environmental manifestations, their causes - and their potential solutions - are invariably bound up with human attitudes, beliefs, values, needs, desires, expectations, and behaviours. Thus the symptoms of the environmental crisis cannot be regarded purely as physical problems requiring solutions by environmental 'specialists'; instead, they are intrinsically human problems and they are intimately related to the question of what it means to be human. At this point, a very brief overview of the environmental crisis may be helpful.
The interactions between human population dynamics and the environment have The review concludes by relating population-environment research to emerging work on human-environment The Limits to Growth: A Report for the Club of Rome's Project on the Article; |; PubReader; |; ePub (beta); |; PDF (K); |; Cite.
What Are Environmental Problems Due to Population Growth?
Population , in human biology, the whole number of inhabitants occupying an area such as a country or the world and continually being modified by increases births and immigrations and losses deaths and emigrations. As with any biological population, the size of a human population is limited by the supply of food, the effect of diseases, and other environmental factors. Human populations are further affected by social customs governing reproduction and by the technological developments, especially in medicine and public health , that have reduced mortality and extended the life span. Few aspects of human societies are as fundamental as the size, composition, and rate of change of their populations.
Human overpopulation or particularly human population overshoot refers to a human population being too large in a way that their society or environment cannot readily sustain them.
The current population of the Earth is almost 7. While a lot of positive steps are being taken to better ensure the sustainability of humans on our planet, the problem of having too many people has made lasting solutions more challenging to find. The term overpopulation is used to describe a situation in which the world or area has a population so large that the people there are suffering as a result. In other words, the population exceeds the region or planet's carrying capacity--the number of people, other living organisms, or crops that can be supported without environmental degradation.
Human overpopulation or particularly human population overshoot refers to a human population being too large in a way that their society or environment cannot readily sustain them. It can be identified with regional human populations, but is generally discussed as an issue of world population. Overpopulation is caused by human population growth.
Human population growth and industrialization of agriculture have been major drivers of Earth system change since the late 18th century, increasing the species extinction rate substantially above the background level MEA , Steffen et al.
The number of people on Earth, where they live, and how they live all affect the condition of the environment. People can alter the environment through their use of natural resources and the production of wastes. Changes in the environmental conditions, in turn, can affect human health and well-being.
Хейл понял, что попал в яблочко. Но невозмутимость Стратмора, очевидно, подверглась тяжкому испытанию. - Кто тебе это сказал? - спросил он, и в его голосе впервые послышались металлические нотки. - Прочитал, - сказал Хейл самодовольно, стараясь извлечь как можно больше выгоды из этой ситуации.