nuclear hazards and human health risks pdf

Nuclear Hazards And Human Health Risks Pdf

File Name: nuclear hazards and human health risks .zip
Size: 1246Kb
Published: 25.04.2021

The environmental impact of nuclear power results from the nuclear fuel cycle , operation, and the effects of nuclear accidents.

Radiation plays a key role in modern life, be it the use of nuclear medicine, space exploration or electricity generation. As a result of many decades of research, the health impacts of radiation are very well-understood. The sources of radiation causing the greatest exposure of the general public are not necessarily those that attract the most attention.

Radiation Health Effects

Radionuclides are elements uranium , uranium , thorium , potassium 40, radium , carbon 14 etc with unstable atomic nuclei and on decomposition release ionizing radiations in the form of alpha, beta and gamma rays. Out of the known 45O radioisotopes only some are of environmental concern like strontium 90, tritium, plutonium , argon 41, cobalt 60, cesium , iodine , krypton 85 etc.

These can be both beneficial and harmful, depending on the way in which they are used. We routinely use X-rays to examine bones for fractures, treat cancer with radiation and diagnose diseases with the help of radioactive isotopes. Radioactive substances when released into the environment are either dispersed or become concentrated in living organisms through the food chain.

Other than naturally occurring radioisotopes, significant amounts are generated by human activity, including the operation of nuclear power plants, the manufacture of nuclear weapons, and atomic bomb testing.

For example, strontium 90 behaves like calcium and is easily deposited and replaces calcium in the bone tissues. It could be passed to human beings through ingestion of strontium-contaminated milk.

Again another example is tritium, which is radioactive hydrogen. The amount of tritium released from nuclear power plants to the atmosphere have reached as high as tens of thousands of curies in one year, and releases to bodies of water have measured as high as tens of millions of picocuries per litre.

The U. Environmental Protection Agency standard for permissible levels of tritium in drinking water is 20, picocuries per litre. Nuclear power plants routinely and accidentally release tritium into the air and water.

Tritium has a half- life of Once tritium is inhaled or swallowed, its beta particles can bombard cells causing a mutation. A few occupations that involve radioactive exposures are uranium mineworkers,. Exposure to radioactive and nuclear hazards has been clinically proven to cause cancer, mutations and teratogenesis Teratogenesis is a prenatal toxicity characterized by structural or functional defects in the developing embryo or fetus.

Nuclear hazard effects can be either initial or residual. Initial effects occur in the. The principal initial effects are blast and radiation.

Blast causes damage to lungs, ruptures eardrums, collapses structures and causes immediate death or injury. Nuclear radiation consists of intense gamma rays and neutrons produced during the first minute after the explosion. This radiation causes extensive damage to cells throughout the body. Radiation damage may cause headaches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and even death, depending on the radiation dose received.

The sources of radioactivity include both natural and manmade. Natural sources. Cosmic rays from outer space. Mining and processing of radioactive ores. Use of radioactive materials in power plants. Use of radioactive isotopes in medical technology x-ray machines, radioisotopes used in medicine. Industrial applications include wastes from nuclear reactors.

Research applications: radioactive fallouts during nuclear weapons testing. In a nuclear power plant, any leak or accident taking place emit nuclear radiation. In either case it results in nuclear hazard.

Uranium mining and milling, Nuclear reactors and reprocessing of nuclear fuel cause nuclear pollution. Studies shown that the health effects due to radiation are dependent on the level of dose, kind of radiation, duration of exposure and types of cells irradiated. Radiation effects can be somatic or genetic. Somatic affects the function of cells and organs. It causes damages to cell membranes, mitochondria and cell nuclei resulting in abnormal cell functions, cell division, growth and death.

Genetic affects the future generations. Radiations can cause mutations, which are changes in genetic make up of cells. These effects are mainly due to the damages to DNA molecules. People suffer from blood cancer and bone cancer if exposed to doses around to roentgens.

Instantaneous deaths on exposure in the event if disasters are many. Nuclear power plants should be located in areas after careful study of the geology of the area, tectonic activity and meeting other established conditions. Appropriate protection against occupational exposure. Safety measure against accidental release of radioactive elements must be ensured in nuclear plants. Unless absolutely necessary, one should not frequently go for diagnosis by x-rays.

Sources Explosion. The Chernobyl nuclear disaster: A lesson in the technological disaster of human history. This disaster that occurred on April 26, in Ukraine , i. It resulted in the release of Sr, Ce, Ce, etc. The explosion occurred due to faulty shutting down of the plant. The radioactive debris, gases and plume drifted over the entire northern hemisphere affecting mostly Sweden, Norway, Poland, and Denmark etc.

More than people died in the disaster and many children were affected with congenital abnormalities. The disaster damaged agricultural crops, plants and caused cancer, lung, eye and blood disorders. This was because the milk was contaminated by , which had entered the cows through grazing on pastures and plants, contaminated with the same. Site news. Environmental Science. Ecosystem Types,Structure and Functions.

Natural Resources. Environmental Pollution. Nuclear Hazards -Solidwaste-disasterMana Nuclear Hazards. Solid Waste. Agricultural Wastes. Module 6 - Question Bank. Module 6 - Question Bank Answers. Biosafety And Risk Assessment. Environmental Science You are currently using guest access Log in. A few occupations that involve radioactive exposures are uranium mineworkers, radium watch dial painters, technical staff at nuclear power plants, etc. Initial effects occur in the immediate area of explosion and are hazardous immediately after the explosion where as the residual effects can last for days or years and cause death.

The Chernobyl nuclear disaster: A lesson in the technological disaster of human history This disaster that occurred on April 26, in Ukraine , i. Skip Navigation. You are currently using guest access Log in.

Environmental Science

Radionuclides are elements uranium , uranium , thorium , potassium 40, radium , carbon 14 etc. Out of the known radioisotopes only some are of environmental concern like strontium 90, tritium, plutonium , argon 41, cobalt 60, cesium , iodine , krypton 85 etc. These can be both beneficial and harmful, depending on the way in which they are used. We routinely use X-rays to examine bones for fractures, treat cancer with radiation and diagnose diseases with the help of radioactive isotopes. Radioactive substances when released into the environment are either dispersed or become concentrated in living organisms through the food chain.

Metrics details. The safety assessment in site selection for a new nuclear power plant is an essential issue for human health. It could be improved by predicting the consequences for a hypothetical accident. This paper is contextual with the nuclear safety regarding the risk upon human health from the hazard constituted by the emission of radioactive material due to a hypothetical nuclear power plant accident. It presents an analysis of the time-series and spatial distribution for dispersed radioactive contaminants from a hypothetical accident at Baiji potential site. This is based on the geological and meteorological specifications of the potential site. Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory HYSPLIT model configured to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of fission emissions, then assesses the public health consequences of a hypothetical nuclear accident.

Ionizing radiation Ionizing radiation Radiation with so much energy it can knock electrons out of atoms. Ionizing radiation can affect the atoms in living things, so it poses a health risk by damaging tissue and DNA in genes. Fortunately, the cells in our bodies are extremely efficient at repairing this damage. However, if the damage is not repaired correctly, a cell may die or eventually become cancerous. It can also result in long-term health effects such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Exposure to low levels of radiation encountered in the environment does not cause immediate health effects, but is a minor contributor to our overall cancer risk. Visit the U.


People suffer from blood cancer and bone cancer if exposed to higher doses around to roentgens. Nuclear hazard effects can be either initial or residual. Initial effects occur in the immediate area of explosion and are hazardous immediately after the explosion.


Essay on Nuclear Pollution: Sources, Effects and Control

Radionuclides are elements uranium , uranium , thorium , potassium 40, radium , carbon 14 etc with unstable atomic nuclei and on decomposition release ionizing radiations in the form of alpha, beta and gamma rays. Out of the known 45O radioisotopes only some are of environmental concern like strontium 90, tritium, plutonium , argon 41, cobalt 60, cesium , iodine , krypton 85 etc. These can be both beneficial and harmful, depending on the way in which they are used. We routinely use X-rays to examine bones for fractures, treat cancer with radiation and diagnose diseases with the help of radioactive isotopes. Radioactive substances when released into the environment are either dispersed or become concentrated in living organisms through the food chain.

Navigation

Мы похороним ключ Хейла и станем молиться Богу, чтобы Дэвид нашел копию, которая была у Танкадо. Дэвид, вспомнила Сьюзан. Она заставляла себя не думать о. Ей нужно было сосредоточиться на неотложных вещах, требующих срочного решения. - Я возьму на себя лабораторию систем безопасности, - сказал Стратмор.

Environmental impact of nuclear power

Сьюзан колебалась недолго, потом кивнула Соши. Соши быстро удалила пробелы, но никакой ясности это не внесло. PFEESESNRETMMFHAIRWEOOIGMEENNRMА ENETSHASDCNSIIAAIEERBRNKFBLELODI Джабба взорвался: - Довольно. Игра закончена. Червь ползет с удвоенной скоростью.

Больше нечему. - Вирус. - Да, какой-то повторяющийся цикл. Что-то попало в процессор, создав заколдованный круг, и практически парализовало систему.

Хейл начал выворачивать шею Сьюзан. - Я-я…я убью. Клянусь, убью. - Ты не сделаешь ничего подобного! - оборвал его Стратмор.

Когда он начал просматривать отчет и проверять ежедневную СЦР, в голове у него вдруг возник образ Кармен, обмазывающей себя медом и посыпающей сахарной пудрой.

1 comments

Joscio N.

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising.

REPLY

Leave a comment

it’s easy to post a comment

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>