x and y theory by douglas mcgregor pdf

X And Y Theory By Douglas Mcgregor Pdf

File Name: x and y theory by douglas mcgregor .zip
Size: 1873Kb
Published: 24.04.2021

He did not imply that workers would be one type or the other. Rather, he saw the two theories as two extremes - with a whole spectrum of possible behaviours in between.

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy.

Theory X and Theory Y published in the Sage Encyclopedia of Management Theories

In his book, The Human Side of Enterprise , McGregor proposed two theories by which managers perceive and address employee motivation. He referred to these opposing motivational methods as Theory X and Theory Y management. Essentially, Theory X assumes that the primary source of employee motivation is monetary, with security as a strong second.

Under Theory X, one can take a hard or soft approach to getting results. The hard approach to motivation relies on coercion, implicit threats, micromanagement, and tight controls— essentially an environment of command and control. The soft approach, however, is to be permissive and seek harmony in the hopes that, in return, employees will cooperate when asked. However, neither of these extremes is optimal. The hard approach results in hostility, purposely low output, and extreme union demands.

Once those needs have been satisfied, the motivation disappears. While money may not be the most effective way to self-fulfillment, it may be the only way available. People will use work to satisfy their lower needs and seek to satisfy their higher needs during their leisure time. However, employees can be most productive when their work goals align with their higher-level needs. McGregor makes the point that a command-and-control environment is not effective because it relies on lower needs for motivation, but in modern society those needs are mostly satisfied and thus are no longer motivating.

In this situation, one would expect employees to dislike their work, avoid responsibility, have no interest in organizational goals, resist change, etc. As such, it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be motivated. McGregor stressed that Theory Y management does not imply a soft approach.

Why were U. Two reasons: 1 high-quality products and 2 low prices. The secret to their success was not what they were producing but how they were managing their people—Japanese employees were engaged, empowered, and highly productive.

Management professor William Ouchi argued that Western organizations could learn from their Japanese counterparts. The rationale for the drawn-out time frame is that it helps develop a more dedicated, loyal, and permanent workforce, which benefits the company; the employees, meanwhile, have the opportunity to fully develop their careers at one company.

In other words, employees have a strong desire for affiliation. Another assumption is that workers expect reciprocity and support from the company. Under Theory Z management, not only do workers have a sense of cohesion with their fellow workers, they also develop a sense of order, discipline, and a moral obligation to work hard.

Theory Z is not the last word on management, however, as it does have its limitations. It can be difficult for organizations and employees to make life-time employment commitments. Also, participative decision-making may not always be feasible or successful due to the nature of the work or the willingness of the workers.

Answer the question s below to see how well you understand the topics covered above. This short quiz does not count toward your grade in the class, and you can retake it an unlimited number of times. Use this quiz to check your understanding and decide whether to 1 study the previous section further or 2 move on to the next section. Skip to main content.

Chapter Motivating Employees. Search for:. Check Your Understanding Answer the question s below to see how well you understand the topics covered above. Licenses and Attributions. CC licensed content, Original.

Theory X and Theory Y

In his book, The Human Side of Enterprise , McGregor proposed two theories by which managers perceive and address employee motivation. He referred to these opposing motivational methods as Theory X and Theory Y management. Essentially, Theory X assumes that the primary source of employee motivation is monetary, with security as a strong second. Under Theory X, one can take a hard or soft approach to getting results. The hard approach to motivation relies on coercion, implicit threats, micromanagement, and tight controls— essentially an environment of command and control. The soft approach, however, is to be permissive and seek harmony in the hopes that, in return, employees will cooperate when asked. However, neither of these extremes is optimal.


PDF | Douglas McGregor's landmark book, The Human Side of Enterprise, changed the path of management thinking and practice by.


Theory X and Theory Y

Theory X is more suitable for occupations with manual labor or workers in the jobs associated with assembling of parts and the jobs where the workers want to fulfill their lower order needs of the hierarchy. From this reason of Theory X self-fulfilling prophecy nature, McGregor proposed another theory which is alternative to the Theory X i.. Theory X and Theory Y are the two theories of motivation suitable for the workplace; the essence of these theories states that how two different managerial styles motivate the workers on the basis of two opposing assumptions.

During the past 30 years, managers have been bombarded with two competing approaches to the problems of human administration and organization. The first, usually called the classical school of organization, emphasizes the need for well-established lines of authority, clearly defined jobs, and authority equal to responsibility. The second, often called the participative approach, focuses on […]. The second, often called the participative approach, focuses on the desirability of involving organization members in decision making so that they will be more highly motivated. The classical organizational approach that McGregor associated with Theory X does work well in some situations, although, as McGregor himself pointed out, there are also some situations where it does not work effectively.

Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human work motivation and management. The two theories proposed by McGregor describe contrasting models of workforce motivation applied by managers in human resource management , organizational behavior , organizational communication and organizational development. Theory X explains the importance of heightened supervision, external rewards, and penalties, while Theory Y highlights the motivating role of job satisfaction and encourages workers to approach tasks without direct supervision.

McGregor's XY Theory of Management

Navigation menu

Корпоративные программисты во всем мире озаботились решением проблемы безопасности электронной почты. В конце концов оно было найдено - так родился доступный широкой публике способ кодирования. Его концепция была столь же проста, сколь и гениальна. Она состояла из легких в использовании программ для домашнего компьютера, которые зашифровывали электронные послания таким образом, что они становились абсолютно нечитаемыми. Пользователь писал письмо, пропускал его через специальную программу, и на другом конце линии адресат получал текст, на первый взгляд не поддающийся прочтению, - шифр. Тот же, кто перехватывал такое сообщение, видел на экране лишь маловразумительную абракадабру. Расшифровать сообщение можно было лишь введя специальный ключ - секретный набор знаков, действующий как ПИН-код в банкомате.

Motivation - McGregor (Theory X & Theory Y)

Я подумал о том, чтобы его ликвидировать, но со всей этой шумихой вокруг кода и его заявлений о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ мы тут же стали бы первыми подозреваемыми. И вот тогда меня осенило.  - Он повернулся к Сьюзан.  - Я понял, что Цифровую крепость не следует останавливать.

Скорее всего Хейл держит там копию ключа. Она мне нужна. Сьюзан даже вздрогнула от неожиданности.

Свернув влево, на Менендес-пелайо, он прибавил газу. Мотоцикл пересек крохотный парк и выкатил на булыжную мостовую Матеус-Гаго - узенькую улицу с односторонним движением, ведущую к порталу Баррио - Санта-Крус. Еще чуть-чуть, подумал .

Некая антиправительственная организация разработала план под кодовым названием Шервудский лес. Его целью была Нью-Йоркская фондовая биржа, а замыслом - перераспределение богатства. За шесть дней члены группы установили в зданиях вокруг биржи двадцать семь взрывобезопасных легкоплавких контейнеров. Одновременный подрыв этих тщательно замаскированных устройств должен был создать магнитное поле такой мощности, что вся информация на магнитных носителях - жестких дисках компьютеров, в постоянных запоминающих устройствах, в резервных файлах и даже на гибких дисках - оказалась бы стерта.

 И японцы действительно верят, что Цифровая крепость - это нечто особенное. Самое лучшее из того, что можно найти на рынке. - Должно быть, Танкадо держится в стороне от таких вещей, но всем известно, что он гений. Это культовая фигура, икона в мире хакеров. Если Танкадо говорит, что алгоритм не поддается взлому, значит, так оно и .

ВАС МОЖЕТ СПАСТИ ТОЛЬКО ПРАВДА ВВЕДИТЕ КЛЮЧ______ Джабба не дождался ответа. - Похоже, кто-то очень нами недоволен, директор. Это шантаж.

2 comments

Leonel C.

McGregor argued that these assumptions fall into two broad categories - Theory X and Theory Y. These findings were detailed in The. Human Side of Enterprise,​.

REPLY

Pregphaicehob

Theory X and Theory Y are still referred to commonly in the field of management and motivation, and whilst more recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model, Mcgregor's X-Y Theory remains a valid basic principle from which to develop positive management style and techniques.

REPLY

Leave a comment

it’s easy to post a comment

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>