Developmental Fluoride Neurotoxicity A Systematic Review And Meta Analysis Pdf
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Objective: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to investigate the effects of increased fluoride exposure and delayed neurobehavioral development. We also searched the China National Knowledge Infrastructure CNKI database, because many studies on fluoride neurotoxicity have been published in Chinese journals only.
- Activated alumina
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- Developmental Fluoride Neurotoxicity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Over the last few decades, people have debated the benefits and hazards of fluoride exposure. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recognized water fluoridation as one of the greatest public-health achievements, and others have claimed that fluoride exposure causes various adverse health effects.
The compound is used as a desiccant to keep things dry by absorbing water from the air and as a filter of fluoride , arsenic and selenium in drinking water. It is made of aluminium oxide alumina; Al 2 O 3. It has a very high surface-area-to-weight ratio, due to the many "tunnel like" pores that it has. Activated alumina in its phase composition can be represented only by metastable forms gamma-Al 2 O 3 etc. Corundum alpha-Al 2 O 3 , the only stable form of aluminum oxide, does not have such a chemically active surface and is not used as a sorbent.
Activated alumina is used for a wide range of adsorbent and catalyst applications including the adsorption of catalysts in polyethylene production, in hydrogen peroxide production, as a selective adsorbent for many chemicals including arsenic , fluoride , in sulfur removal from fluid streams Claus Catalyst process. Used as a desiccant, it works by a process called adsorption.
The water in the air actually sticks to the alumina itself in between the tiny passages as the air passes through them. The water molecules become trapped so that the air is dried out as it passes through the filter. This process is reversible. This process is called regenerating the desiccant. Activated alumina is also widely used to remove fluoride from drinking water.
In the US, there are widespread programs to fluoridate drinking water. However, in certain regions, such as the Rajasthan region of India, there is enough fluoride in the water to cause fluorosis. A study from the Harvard school of Public Health found exposure to fluoride as a child correlated with lower IQ.
Activated alumina filters can easily reduce fluoride levels from 10 ppm to less than 1 ppm. The amount of fluoride leached from the water being filtered depends on how long the water is actually touching the alumina filter media. Basically, the more alumina in the filter, the less fluoride will be in the final, filtered water. Lower temperature water, and lower pH water acidic water are filtered more effectively too.
Ideal pH for treatment is 5. As per researches conducted by V. Chhabra, Chief Chemist retd. Rajasthan, activated alumina, when used as a fluoride filter, under field conditions can best be regenerated by a solution of lye sodium hydroxide ; NaOH , sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4. The FUC using V. Chhabra's method can be determined as follows:. Fluoride solution: Dissolve Add 10 g of the AA under test. After one hour, switch off the machine and take out the solution.
After 5 minutes, carefully decant the supernatant solution and determine the fluoride. Calculate the difference between the original and treated water fluoride concentration. In high vacuum applications, activated alumina is used as a charge material in fore-line traps to prevent oil generated by rotary vane pumps from back streaming into the system.
Its mechanical properties and non-reactivity in the biological environment allow it to be a suitable material used to cover surfaces in friction in body prostheses e. Defluoridation is the downward adjustment of the level of fluoride in drinking water. Activated Alumina process is one of the widely used adsorption methods for the defluoridation of drinking water. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.
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The compound is used as a desiccant to keep things dry by absorbing water from the air and as a filter of fluoride , arsenic and selenium in drinking water. It is made of aluminium oxide alumina; Al 2 O 3. It has a very high surface-area-to-weight ratio, due to the many "tunnel like" pores that it has. Activated alumina in its phase composition can be represented only by metastable forms gamma-Al 2 O 3 etc. Corundum alpha-Al 2 O 3 , the only stable form of aluminum oxide, does not have such a chemically active surface and is not used as a sorbent. Activated alumina is used for a wide range of adsorbent and catalyst applications including the adsorption of catalysts in polyethylene production, in hydrogen peroxide production, as a selective adsorbent for many chemicals including arsenic , fluoride , in sulfur removal from fluid streams Claus Catalyst process.
Developmental Fluoride Neurotoxicity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
B, Community fluoridation status CWF is shown for each woman; black dots represent women living in nonfluoridated non-Fl communities and blue dots represent women living in fluoridated Fl communities. JAMA Pediatr. The study sample included mother-child pairs recruited from 6 major cities in Canada; children were between ages 3 and 4 years at testing.
Fluoride toxicity is a condition in which there are elevated levels of the fluoride ion in the body. Although fluoride is safe for dental health at low concentrations, sustained consumption of large amounts of soluble fluoride salts is dangerous. In this way, the most widespread examples of fluoride poisoning arise from consumption of ground water that is abnormally fluoride-rich. For optimal dental health, the World Health Organization recommends a level of fluoride from 0. The new recommended level is intended to reduce the occurrence of dental fluorosis while maintaining water fluoridation.
Sign up for our free newsletter for updates on the latest fluoride developments. Find ways to get involved. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to investigate the effects of increased fluoride exposure and delayed neurobehavioral development.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. An updated review by Philippe Grandjean, published in Environmental Health on December 19, , of developmental fluoride neurotoxicity concluded that recent epidemiological results support the notion that elevated fluoride intake during early development can result in IQ deficits that may be considerable.
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