origins and ecological consequences of pollen specialization pdf

Origins And Ecological Consequences Of Pollen Specialization Pdf

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Minckley Lab. Danforth, B.

Aizen, M. Aguiar, J. Biesmeijer, L. Garibaldi, D. Inouye, C.

A brief review of monolecty in bees and benefits of a broadened definition

The plant kingdom produces an extraordinary diversity of secondary metabolites and the majority of the literature supports a defensive ecological role for them, particularly against invertebrate herbivores antagonists. Plants also produce secondary compounds in floral nectar and pollen and these are often similar to those produced for defense against invertebrates elsewhere in the plant. This is largely because the chemical armoury within a single plant species is typically restricted to a few biochemical pathways and limited chemical products but how their occurrence in floral rewards is regulated to mediate both defence and enhanced pollination is not well understood. Several phytochemicals are reviewed here comparing the defensive function alongside their benefit to flower visiting mutualists. These include caffeine, aconitine, nicotine, thymol, linalool, lupanine and grayanotoxins comparing the evidence for their defensive function with their impacts on pollinators, their behaviour and well-being. Drivers of adaptation and the evolution of floral traits are discussed in the context of recent studies.

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For honey bees Apis mellifera , colony maintenance and growth are highly dependent on worker foragers obtaining sufficient resources from flowering plants year round. Despite the importance of floral diversity for proper bee nutrition, urban development has drastically altered resource availability and diversity for these important pollinators. Therefore, understanding the floral resources foraged by bees in urbanized areas is key to identifying and promoting plants that enhance colony health in those environments. In this study, we identified the pollen foraged by bees in four developed areas of the U. To do this, pollen was collected every month for up to one year from colonies located in developed urban and suburban sites in California, Texas, Florida, and Michigan, except during months of pollen dearth or winter. Homogenized pollen samples were acetolyzed and identified microscopically to the lowest taxonomic level possible. Once identified, each pollen type was classified into a frequency category based on its overall relative abundance.

Monolecty in bees was defined a century ago for those species that consistently collect pollen only from the same single species of floral host. Here, I review its multiple problems and suggest that its utility would improve if we apply the term monolecty to those bees species that use a single genus not species of flowering host. About a century ago, the bee naturalist Charles Robertson concluded that bee species differed in their pollen foraging predilections. That insight arose from his years of exhaustive bee surveys around his home in Carlinville, Illinois USA, during which he methodically recorded the floral hosts at which he caught bee species Robertson Importantly, he recorded foraging behavior as well, which led him to group bee species according to the taxonomic range of plants from which females collected pollen Robertson

Official websites use. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. Menu Agricultural Research Service U. Search small Search. A brief review of monolecty in bees and benefits of a broadened definition - Peer Reviewed Journal Cane, J. A brief review of monolecty in bees and benefits of a broadened definition.

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Plant reproduction by means of flowers has long been thought to promote the success and diversification of angiosperms. It remains unclear, however, how this success has come about. Do flowers, and their capacity to have specialized functions, increase speciation rates or decrease extinction rates? Is floral specialization fundamental or incidental to the diversification?

 Ну… ты знаешь, как они говорят о компьютерах. Когда их машины выдают полную чушь, они все равно на них молятся. Мидж повернулась к нему на своем стуле. - Это не смешно, Чед. Заместитель директора только что солгал директорской канцелярии.

У нас нет гарантий, что Дэвид найдет вторую копию. Если по какой-то случайности кольцо попадет не в те руки, я бы предпочел, чтобы мы уже внесли нужные изменения в алгоритм. Тогда, кто бы ни стал обладателем ключа, он скачает себе нашу версию алгоритма.  - Стратмор помахал оружием и встал.

A brief review of monolecty in bees and benefits of a broadened definition

 Какое вам дело? - холодно произнес американец.

 - В чем. Она не шевельнулась. - Ты волнуешься о Дэвиде. Ее верхняя губа чуть дрогнула. Стратмор подошел еще ближе.

С интервалом в три минуты была зарегистрирована вторая серия команд запирания-отпирания. Согласно регистру, кто-то открывал ее компьютер, пока ее не было в комнате. Но это невозможно.

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 В два часа ночи по воскресеньям. Она сейчас наверняка уже над Атлантикой. Беккер взглянул на часы.

Больше нечему. - Вирус. - Да, какой-то повторяющийся цикл. Что-то попало в процессор, создав заколдованный круг, и практически парализовало систему.

Солнечный удар и инфаркт. Бедолага. Беккер ничего не сказал и продолжал разглядывать пальцы умершего.

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